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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

Towards Effective Multi-Task Interaction for Entity-Relation Extraction: A Unified Framework with Selection Recurrent Network

Feb 15, 2022
An Wang, Ao Liu, Hieu Hanh Le, Haruo Yokota

Entity-relation extraction aims to jointly solve named entity recognition (NER) and relation extraction (RE). Recent approaches use either one-way sequential information propagation in a pipeline manner or two-way implicit interaction with a shared encoder. However, they still suffer from poor information interaction due to the gap between the different task forms of NER and RE, raising a controversial question whether RE is really beneficial to NER. Motivated by this, we propose a novel and unified cascade framework that combines the advantages of both sequential information propagation and implicit interaction. Meanwhile, it eliminates the gap between the two tasks by reformulating entity-relation extraction as unified span-extraction tasks. Specifically, we propose a selection recurrent network as a shared encoder to encode task-specific independent and shared representations and design two sequential information propagation strategies to realize the sequential information flow between NER and RE. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approaches can achieve state-of-the-art results on two common benchmarks, ACE05 and SciERC, and effectively model the multi-task interaction, which realizes significant mutual benefits of NER and RE.

  

The Cosmic Graph: Optimal Information Extraction from Large-Scale Structure using Catalogues

Jul 11, 2022
T. Lucas Makinen, Tom Charnock, Pablo Lemos, Natalia Porqueres, Alan Heavens, Benjamin D. Wandelt

We present an implicit likelihood approach to quantifying cosmological information over discrete catalogue data, assembled as graphs. To do so, we explore cosmological inference using mock dark matter halo catalogues. We employ Information Maximising Neural Networks (IMNNs) to quantify Fisher information extraction as a function of graph representation. We a) demonstrate the high sensitivity of modular graph structure to the underlying cosmology in the noise-free limit, b) show that networks automatically combine mass and clustering information through comparisons to traditional statistics, c) demonstrate that graph neural networks can still extract information when catalogues are subject to noisy survey cuts, and d) illustrate how nonlinear IMNN summaries can be used as asymptotically optimal compressed statistics for Bayesian implicit likelihood inference. We reduce the area of joint $\Omega_m, \sigma_8$ parameter constraints with small ($\sim$100 object) halo catalogues by a factor of 42 over the two-point correlation function, and demonstrate that the networks automatically combine mass and clustering information. This work utilises a new IMNN implementation over graph data in Jax, which can take advantage of either numerical or auto-differentiability. We also show that graph IMNNs successfully compress simulations far from the fiducial model at which the network is fitted, indicating a promising alternative to $n$-point statistics in catalogue-based analyses.

* 16 pages, 10 figures. To be submitted to RASTI. We provide code and a tutorial for the analysis and relevant software at https://github.com/tlmakinen/cosmicGraphs 
  

Zero-Shot Open Information Extraction using Question Generation and Reading Comprehension

Sep 16, 2021
Himanshu Gupta, Amogh Badugu, Tamanna Agrawal, Himanshu Sharad Bhatt

Typically, Open Information Extraction (OpenIE) focuses on extracting triples, representing a subject, a relation, and the object of the relation. However, most of the existing techniques are based on a predefined set of relations in each domain which limits their applicability to newer domains where these relations may be unknown such as financial documents. This paper presents a zero-shot open information extraction technique that extracts the entities (value) and their descriptions (key) from a sentence, using off the shelf machine reading comprehension (MRC) Model. The input questions to this model are created using a novel noun phrase generation method. This method takes the context of the sentence into account and can create a wide variety of questions making our technique domain independent. Given the questions and the sentence, our technique uses the MRC model to extract entities (value). The noun phrase corresponding to the question, with the highest confidence, is taken as the description (key). This paper also introduces the EDGAR10-Q dataset which is based on publicly available financial documents from corporations listed in US securities and exchange commission (SEC). The dataset consists of paragraphs, tagged values (entities), and their keys (descriptions) and is one of the largest among entity extraction datasets. This dataset will be a valuable addition to the research community, especially in the financial domain. Finally, the paper demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed technique on the EDGAR10-Q and Ade corpus drug dosage datasets, where it obtained 86.84 % and 97% accuracy, respectively.

* 8 pages, 2 Figures, 1 Algorithm, 7 Tables. Accepted in KDD Workshop on Machine Learning in Finance 2021 
  

Tag and Correct: Question aware Open Information Extraction with Two-stage Decoding

Sep 16, 2020
Martin Kuo, Yaobo Liang, Lei Ji, Nan Duan, Linjun Shou, Ming Gong, Peng Chen

Question Aware Open Information Extraction (Question aware Open IE) takes question and passage as inputs, outputting an answer tuple which contains a subject, a predicate, and one or more arguments. Each field of answer is a natural language word sequence and is extracted from the passage. The semi-structured answer has two advantages which are more readable and falsifiable compared to span answer. There are two approaches to solve this problem. One is an extractive method which extracts candidate answers from the passage with the Open IE model, and ranks them by matching with questions. It fully uses the passage information at the extraction step, but the extraction is independent to the question. The other one is the generative method which uses a sequence to sequence model to generate answers directly. It combines the question and passage as input at the same time, but it generates the answer from scratch, which does not use the facts that most of the answer words come from in the passage. To guide the generation by passage, we present a two-stage decoding model which contains a tagging decoder and a correction decoder. At the first stage, the tagging decoder will tag keywords from the passage. At the second stage, the correction decoder will generate answers based on tagged keywords. Our model could be trained end-to-end although it has two stages. Compared to previous generative models, we generate better answers by generating coarse to fine. We evaluate our model on WebAssertions (Yan et al., 2018) which is a Question aware Open IE dataset. Our model achieves a BLEU score of 59.32, which is better than previous generative methods.

* 11 pages, 1 figure, 4 tables 
  

DWIE: an entity-centric dataset for multi-task document-level information extraction

Sep 26, 2020
Klim Zaporojets, Johannes Deleu, Chris Develder, Thomas Demeester

This paper presents DWIE, the 'Deutsche Welle corpus for Information Extraction', a newly created multi-task dataset that combines four main Information Extraction (IE) annotation sub-tasks: (i) Named Entity Recognition (NER), (ii) Coreference Resolution, (iii) Relation Extraction (RE), and (iv) Entity Linking. DWIE is conceived as an entity-centric dataset that describes interactions and properties of conceptual entities on the level of the complete document. This contrasts with currently dominant mention-driven approaches that start from the detection and classification of named entity mentions in individual sentences. Further, DWIE presented two main challenges when building and evaluating IE models for it. First, the use of traditional mention-level evaluation metrics for NER and RE tasks on entity-centric DWIE dataset can result in measurements dominated by predictions on more frequently mentioned entities. We tackle this issue by proposing a new entity-driven metric that takes into account the number of mentions that compose each of the predicted and ground truth entities. Second, the document-level multi-task annotations require the models to transfer information between entity mentions located in different parts of the document, as well as between different tasks, in a joint learning setting. To realize this, we propose to use graph-based neural message passing techniques between document-level mention spans. Our experiments show an improvement of up to 5.5 F1 percentage points when incorporating neural graph propagation into our joint model. This demonstrates DWIE's potential to stimulate further research in graph neural networks for representation learning in multi-task IE. We make DWIE publicly available at https://github.com/klimzaporojets/DWIE.

  

Extracting Temporal and Causal Relations between Events

Apr 27, 2016
Paramita Mirza

Structured information resulting from temporal information processing is crucial for a variety of natural language processing tasks, for instance to generate timeline summarization of events from news documents, or to answer temporal/causal-related questions about some events. In this thesis we present a framework for an integrated temporal and causal relation extraction system. We first develop a robust extraction component for each type of relations, i.e. temporal order and causality. We then combine the two extraction components into an integrated relation extraction system, CATENA---CAusal and Temporal relation Extraction from NAtural language texts---, by utilizing the presumption about event precedence in causality, that causing events must happened BEFORE resulting events. Several resources and techniques to improve our relation extraction systems are also discussed, including word embeddings and training data expansion. Finally, we report our adaptation efforts of temporal information processing for languages other than English, namely Italian and Indonesian.

* PhD Thesis 
  

GraphIE: A Graph-Based Framework for Information Extraction

Oct 31, 2018
Yujie Qian, Enrico Santus, Zhijing Jin, Jiang Guo, Regina Barzilay

Most modern Information Extraction (IE) systems are implemented as sequential taggers and focus on modelling local dependencies. Non-local and non-sequential context is, however, a valuable source of information to improve predictions. In this paper, we introduce GraphIE, a framework that operates over a graph representing both local and non-local dependencies between textual units (i.e. words or sentences). The algorithm propagates information between connected nodes through graph convolutions and exploits the richer representation to improve word level predictions. The framework is evaluated on three different tasks, namely social media, textual and visual information extraction. Results show that GraphIE outperforms a competitive baseline (BiLSTM+CRF) in all tasks by a significant margin.

  

Multimodal Attribute Extraction

Nov 29, 2017
Robert L. Logan IV, Samuel Humeau, Sameer Singh

The broad goal of information extraction is to derive structured information from unstructured data. However, most existing methods focus solely on text, ignoring other types of unstructured data such as images, video and audio which comprise an increasing portion of the information on the web. To address this shortcoming, we propose the task of multimodal attribute extraction. Given a collection of unstructured and semi-structured contextual information about an entity (such as a textual description, or visual depictions) the task is to extract the entity's underlying attributes. In this paper, we provide a dataset containing mixed-media data for over 2 million product items along with 7 million attribute-value pairs describing the items which can be used to train attribute extractors in a weakly supervised manner. We provide a variety of baselines which demonstrate the relative effectiveness of the individual modes of information towards solving the task, as well as study human performance.

* AKBC 2017 Workshop Paper 
  

Deep covariate-learning: optimising information extraction from terrain texture for geostatistical modelling applications

Jun 15, 2020
Charlie Kirkwood

Where data is available, it is desirable in geostatistical modelling to make use of additional covariates, for example terrain data, in order to improve prediction accuracy in the modelling task. While elevation itself may be important, additional explanatory power for any given problem can be sought (but not necessarily found) by filtering digital elevation models to extract higher-order derivatives such as slope angles, curvatures, and roughness. In essence, it would be beneficial to extract as much task-relevant information as possible from the elevation grid. However, given the complexities of the natural world, chance dictates that the use of 'off-the-shelf' filters is unlikely to derive covariates that provide strong explanatory power to the target variable at hand, and any attempt to manually design informative covariates is likely to be a trial-and-error process -- not optimal. In this paper we present a solution to this problem in the form of a deep learning approach to automatically deriving optimal task-specific terrain texture covariates from a standard SRTM 90m gridded digital elevation model (DEM). For our target variables we use point-sampled geochemical data from the British Geological Survey: concentrations of potassium, calcium and arsenic in stream sediments. We find that our deep learning approach produces covariates for geostatistical modelling that have surprisingly strong explanatory power on their own, with R-squared values around 0.6 for all three elements (with arsenic on the log scale). These results are achieved without the neural network being provided with easting, northing, or absolute elevation as inputs, and purely reflect the capacity of our deep neural network to extract task-specific information from terrain texture. We hope that these results will inspire further investigation into the capabilities of deep learning within geostatistical applications.

* 14 pages, 8 figures, submitted to journal 
  

MATrIX -- Modality-Aware Transformer for Information eXtraction

May 17, 2022
Thomas Delteil, Edouard Belval, Lei Chen, Luis Goncalves, Vijay Mahadevan

We present MATrIX - a Modality-Aware Transformer for Information eXtraction in the Visual Document Understanding (VDU) domain. VDU covers information extraction from visually rich documents such as forms, invoices, receipts, tables, graphs, presentations, or advertisements. In these, text semantics and visual information supplement each other to provide a global understanding of the document. MATrIX is pre-trained in an unsupervised way with specifically designed tasks that require the use of multi-modal information (spatial, visual, or textual). We consider the spatial and text modalities all at once in a single token set. To make the attention more flexible, we use a learned modality-aware relative bias in the attention mechanism to modulate the attention between the tokens of different modalities. We evaluate MATrIX on 3 different datasets each with strong baselines.

  
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