The unstructured nature of clinical notes within electronic health records often conceals vital patient-related information, making it challenging to access or interpret. To uncover this hidden information, specialized Natural Language Processing (NLP) models are required. However, training these models necessitates large amounts of labeled data, a process that is both time-consuming and costly when relying solely on human experts for annotation. In this paper, we propose an approach that combines Large Language Models (LLMs) with human expertise to create an efficient method for generating ground truth labels for medical text annotation. By utilizing LLMs in conjunction with human annotators, we significantly reduce the human annotation burden, enabling the rapid creation of labeled datasets. We rigorously evaluate our method on a medical information extraction task, demonstrating that our approach not only substantially cuts down on human intervention but also maintains high accuracy. The results highlight the potential of using LLMs to improve the utilization of unstructured clinical data, allowing for the swift deployment of tailored NLP solutions in healthcare.
Sharing knowledge between information extraction tasks has always been a challenge due to the diverse data formats and task variations. Meanwhile, this divergence leads to information waste and increases difficulties in building complex applications in real scenarios. Recent studies often formulate IE tasks as a triplet extraction problem. However, such a paradigm does not support multi-span and n-ary extraction, leading to weak versatility. To this end, we reorganize IE problems into unified multi-slot tuples and propose a universal framework for various IE tasks, namely Mirror. Specifically, we recast existing IE tasks as a multi-span cyclic graph extraction problem and devise a non-autoregressive graph decoding algorithm to extract all spans in a single step. It is worth noting that this graph structure is incredibly versatile, and it supports not only complex IE tasks, but also machine reading comprehension and classification tasks. We manually construct a corpus containing 57 datasets for model pretraining, and conduct experiments on 30 datasets across 8 downstream tasks. The experimental results demonstrate that our model has decent compatibility and outperforms or reaches competitive performance with SOTA systems under few-shot and zero-shot settings. The code, model weights, and pretraining corpus are available at https://github.com/Spico197/Mirror .
Information Extraction (IE) from document images is challenging due to the high variability of layout formats. Deep models such as LayoutLM and BROS have been proposed to address this problem and have shown promising results. However, they still require a large amount of field-level annotations for training these models. Other approaches using rule-based methods have also been proposed based on the understanding of the layout and semantics of a form such as geometric position, or type of the fields, etc. In this work, we propose a novel approach, EIGEN (Expert-Informed Joint Learning aGgrEatioN), which combines rule-based methods with deep learning models using data programming approaches to circumvent the requirement of annotation of large amounts of training data. Specifically, EIGEN consolidates weak labels induced from multiple heuristics through generative models and use them along with a small number of annotated labels to jointly train a deep model. In our framework, we propose the use of labeling functions that include incorporating contextual information thus capturing the visual and language context of a word for accurate categorization. We empirically show that our EIGEN framework can significantly improve the performance of state-of-the-art deep models with the availability of very few labeled data instances. The source code is available at https://github.com/ayushayush591/EIGEN-High-Fidelity-Extraction-Document-Images.
Information Extraction (IE) stands as a cornerstone in natural language processing, traditionally segmented into distinct sub-tasks. The advent of Large Language Models (LLMs) heralds a paradigm shift, suggesting the feasibility of a singular model addressing multiple IE subtasks. In this vein, we introduce the General Information Extraction Large Language Model (GIELLM), which integrates text Classification, Sentiment Analysis, Named Entity Recognition, Relation Extraction, and Event Extraction using a uniform input-output schema. This innovation marks the first instance of a model simultaneously handling such a diverse array of IE subtasks. Notably, the GIELLM leverages the Mutual Reinforcement Effect (MRE), enhancing performance in integrated tasks compared to their isolated counterparts. Our experiments demonstrate State-of-the-Art (SOTA) results in five out of six Japanese mixed datasets, significantly surpassing GPT-3.5-Turbo. Further, an independent evaluation using the novel Text Classification Relation and Event Extraction(TCREE) dataset corroborates the synergistic advantages of MRE in text and word classification. This breakthrough paves the way for most IE subtasks to be subsumed under a singular LLM framework. Specialized fine-tune task-specific models are no longer needed.
Scientific information extraction (SciIE), which aims to automatically extract information from scientific literature, is becoming more important than ever. However, there are no existing SciIE datasets for polymer materials, which is an important class of materials used ubiquitously in our daily lives. To bridge this gap, we introduce POLYIE, a new SciIE dataset for polymer materials. POLYIE is curated from 146 full-length polymer scholarly articles, which are annotated with different named entities (i.e., materials, properties, values, conditions) as well as their N-ary relations by domain experts. POLYIE presents several unique challenges due to diverse lexical formats of entities, ambiguity between entities, and variable-length relations. We evaluate state-of-the-art named entity extraction and relation extraction models on POLYIE, analyze their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight some difficult cases for these models. To the best of our knowledge, POLYIE is the first SciIE benchmark for polymer materials, and we hope it will lead to more research efforts from the community on this challenging task. Our code and data are available on: https://github.com/jerry3027/PolyIE.
Extracting key information from scientific papers has the potential to help researchers work more efficiently and accelerate the pace of scientific progress. Over the last few years, research on Scientific Information Extraction (SciIE) witnessed the release of several new systems and benchmarks. However, existing paper-focused datasets mostly focus only on specific parts of a manuscript (e.g., abstracts) and are single-modality (i.e., text- or table-only), due to complex processing and expensive annotations. Moreover, core information can be present in either text or tables or across both. To close this gap in data availability and enable cross-modality IE, while alleviating labeling costs, we propose a semi-supervised pipeline for annotating entities in text, as well as entities and relations in tables, in an iterative procedure. Based on this pipeline, we release novel resources for the scientific community, including a high-quality benchmark, a large-scale corpus, and a semi-supervised annotation pipeline. We further report the performance of state-of-the-art IE models on the proposed benchmark dataset, as a baseline. Lastly, we explore the potential capability of large language models such as ChatGPT for the current task. Our new dataset, results, and analysis validate the effectiveness and efficiency of our semi-supervised pipeline, and we discuss its remaining limitations.
Information Extraction (IE) aims to extract structural knowledge (e.g., entities, relations, events) from natural language texts, which brings challenges to existing methods due to task-specific schemas and complex text expressions. Code, as a typical kind of formalized language, is capable of describing structural knowledge under various schemas in a universal way. On the other hand, Large Language Models (LLMs) trained on both codes and texts have demonstrated powerful capabilities of transforming texts into codes, which provides a feasible solution to IE tasks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a universal retrieval-augmented code generation framework based on LLMs, called Code4UIE, for IE tasks. Specifically, Code4UIE adopts Python classes to define task-specific schemas of various structural knowledge in a universal way. By so doing, extracting knowledge under these schemas can be transformed into generating codes that instantiate the predefined Python classes with the information in texts. To generate these codes more precisely, Code4UIE adopts the in-context learning mechanism to instruct LLMs with examples. In order to obtain appropriate examples for different tasks, Code4UIE explores several example retrieval strategies, which can retrieve examples semantically similar to the given texts. Extensive experiments on five representative IE tasks across nine datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the Code4UIE framework.
In this paper, we make a bold attempt toward an ambitious task: given a pre-trained classifier, we aim to reconstruct an image generator, without relying on any data samples. From a black-box perspective, this challenge seems intractable, since it inevitably involves identifying the inverse function for a classifier, which is, by nature, an information extraction process. As such, we resort to leveraging the knowledge encapsulated within the parameters of the neural network. Grounded on the theory of Maximum-Margin Bias of gradient descent, we propose a novel learning paradigm, in which the generator is trained to ensure that the convergence conditions of the network parameters are satisfied over the generated distribution of the samples. Empirical validation from various image generation tasks substantiates the efficacy of our strategy.
We present Deep Search DocQA. This application enables information extraction from documents via a question-answering conversational assistant. The system integrates several technologies from different AI disciplines consisting of document conversion to machine-readable format (via computer vision), finding relevant data (via natural language processing), and formulating an eloquent response (via large language models). Users can explore over 10,000 Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosure reports from over 2000 corporations. The Deep Search platform can be accessed at: https://ds4sd.github.io.