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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers
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Universal Information Extraction as Unified Semantic Matching

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Jan 09, 2023
Jie Lou, Yaojie Lu, Dai Dai, Wei Jia, Hongyu Lin, Xianpei Han, Le Sun, Hua Wu

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The challenge of information extraction (IE) lies in the diversity of label schemas and the heterogeneity of structures. Traditional methods require task-specific model design and rely heavily on expensive supervision, making them difficult to generalize to new schemas. In this paper, we decouple IE into two basic abilities, structuring and conceptualizing, which are shared by different tasks and schemas. Based on this paradigm, we propose to universally model various IE tasks with Unified Semantic Matching (USM) framework, which introduces three unified token linking operations to model the abilities of structuring and conceptualizing. In this way, USM can jointly encode schema and input text, uniformly extract substructures in parallel, and controllably decode target structures on demand. Empirical evaluation on 4 IE tasks shows that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance under the supervised experiments and shows strong generalization ability in zero/few-shot transfer settings.

* accepted by AAAI2023 

PIE-QG: Paraphrased Information Extraction for Unsupervised Question Generation from Small Corpora

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Jan 03, 2023
Dinesh Nagumothu, Bahadorreza Ofoghi, Guangyan Huang, Peter W. Eklund

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Supervised Question Answering systems (QA systems) rely on domain-specific human-labeled data for training. Unsupervised QA systems generate their own question-answer training pairs, typically using secondary knowledge sources to achieve this outcome. Our approach (called PIE-QG) uses Open Information Extraction (OpenIE) to generate synthetic training questions from paraphrased passages and uses the question-answer pairs as training data for a language model for a state-of-the-art QA system based on BERT. Triples in the form of <subject, predicate, object> are extracted from each passage, and questions are formed with subjects (or objects) and predicates while objects (or subjects) are considered as answers. Experimenting on five extractive QA datasets demonstrates that our technique achieves on-par performance with existing state-of-the-art QA systems with the benefit of being trained on an order of magnitude fewer documents and without any recourse to external reference data sources.

* 10 pages, 3 figures, Published to Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning 

MORTY: Structured Summarization for Targeted Information Extraction from Scholarly Articles

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Dec 11, 2022
Mohamad Yaser Jaradeh, Markus Stocker, Sören Auer

Information extraction from scholarly articles is a challenging task due to the sizable document length and implicit information hidden in text, figures, and citations. Scholarly information extraction has various applications in exploration, archival, and curation services for digital libraries and knowledge management systems. We present MORTY, an information extraction technique that creates structured summaries of text from scholarly articles. Our approach condenses the article's full-text to property-value pairs as a segmented text snippet called structured summary. We also present a sizable scholarly dataset combining structured summaries retrieved from a scholarly knowledge graph and corresponding publicly available scientific articles, which we openly publish as a resource for the research community. Our results show that structured summarization is a suitable approach for targeted information extraction that complements other commonly used methods such as question answering and named entity recognition.

* Published as a short paper in ICADL 2022 

On Event Individuation for Document-Level Information Extraction

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Dec 19, 2022
William Gantt, Reno Kriz, Yunmo Chen, Siddharth Vashishtha, Aaron Steven White

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As information extraction (IE) systems have grown more capable at whole-document extraction, the classic task of \emph{template filling} has seen renewed interest as a benchmark for evaluating them. In this position paper, we call into question the suitability of template filling for this purpose. We argue that the task demands definitive answers to thorny questions of \emph{event individuation} -- the problem of distinguishing distinct events -- about which even human experts disagree. We show through annotation studies and error analysis that this raises concerns about the usefulness of template filling evaluation metrics, the quality of datasets for the task, and the ability of models to learn it. Finally, we consider possible solutions.

Joint Information Extraction with Cross-Task and Cross-Instance High-Order Modeling

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Dec 17, 2022
Zixia Jia, Zhaohui Yan, Wenjuan Han, Zilong Zheng, Kewei Tu

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Prior works on Information Extraction (IE) typically predict different tasks and instances (e.g., event triggers, entities, roles, relations) independently, while neglecting their interactions and leading to model inefficiency. In this work, we introduce a joint IE framework, HighIE, that learns and predicts multiple IE tasks by integrating high-order cross-task and cross-instance dependencies. Specifically, we design two categories of high-order factors: homogeneous factors and heterogeneous factors. Then, these factors are utilized to jointly predict labels of all instances. To address the intractability problem of exact high-order inference, we incorporate a high-order neural decoder that is unfolded from a mean-field variational inference method. The experimental results show that our approach achieves consistent improvements on three IE tasks compared with our baseline and prior work.

Syntactic Multi-view Learning for Open Information Extraction

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Dec 05, 2022
Kuicai Dong, Aixin Sun, Jung-Jae Kim, Xiaoli Li

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Open Information Extraction (OpenIE) aims to extract relational tuples from open-domain sentences. Traditional rule-based or statistical models have been developed based on syntactic structures of sentences, identified by syntactic parsers. However, previous neural OpenIE models under-explore the useful syntactic information. In this paper, we model both constituency and dependency trees into word-level graphs, and enable neural OpenIE to learn from the syntactic structures. To better fuse heterogeneous information from both graphs, we adopt multi-view learning to capture multiple relationships from them. Finally, the finetuned constituency and dependency representations are aggregated with sentential semantic representations for tuple generation. Experiments show that both constituency and dependency information, and the multi-view learning are effective.

* EMNLP 2022  
* To appear in EMNLP 2022 

Towards Generalized Open Information Extraction

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Nov 29, 2022
Bowen Yu, Zhenyu Zhang, Jingyang Li, Haiyang Yu, Tingwen Liu, Jian Sun, Yongbin Li, Bin Wang

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Open Information Extraction (OpenIE) facilitates the open-domain discovery of textual facts. However, the prevailing solutions evaluate OpenIE models on in-domain test sets aside from the training corpus, which certainly violates the initial task principle of domain-independence. In this paper, we propose to advance OpenIE towards a more realistic scenario: generalizing over unseen target domains with different data distributions from the source training domains, termed Generalized OpenIE. For this purpose, we first introduce GLOBE, a large-scale human-annotated multi-domain OpenIE benchmark, to examine the robustness of recent OpenIE models to domain shifts, and the relative performance degradation of up to 70% implies the challenges of generalized OpenIE. Then, we propose DragonIE, which explores a minimalist graph expression of textual fact: directed acyclic graph, to improve the OpenIE generalization. Extensive experiments demonstrate that DragonIE beats the previous methods in both in-domain and out-of-domain settings by as much as 6.0% in F1 score absolutely, but there is still ample room for improvement.

* EMNLP 2022 

Structured information extraction from complex scientific text with fine-tuned large language models

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Dec 10, 2022
Alexander Dunn, John Dagdelen, Nicholas Walker, Sanghoon Lee, Andrew S. Rosen, Gerbrand Ceder, Kristin Persson, Anubhav Jain

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Intelligently extracting and linking complex scientific information from unstructured text is a challenging endeavor particularly for those inexperienced with natural language processing. Here, we present a simple sequence-to-sequence approach to joint named entity recognition and relation extraction for complex hierarchical information in scientific text. The approach leverages a pre-trained large language model (LLM), GPT-3, that is fine-tuned on approximately 500 pairs of prompts (inputs) and completions (outputs). Information is extracted either from single sentences or across sentences in abstracts/passages, and the output can be returned as simple English sentences or a more structured format, such as a list of JSON objects. We demonstrate that LLMs trained in this way are capable of accurately extracting useful records of complex scientific knowledge for three representative tasks in materials chemistry: linking dopants with their host materials, cataloging metal-organic frameworks, and general chemistry/phase/morphology/application information extraction. This approach represents a simple, accessible, and highly-flexible route to obtaining large databases of structured knowledge extracted from unstructured text. An online demo is available at http://www.matscholar.com/info-extraction.

Energy Efficient Semantic Communication over Wireless Networks with Rate Splitting

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Jan 05, 2023
Zhaohui Yang, Mingzhe Chen, Zhaoyang Zhang, Chongwen Huang

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In this paper, the problem of wireless resource allocation and semantic information extraction for energy efficient semantic communications over wireless networks with rate splitting is investigated. In the considered model, a base station (BS) first extracts semantic information from its large-scale data, and then transmits the small-sized semantic information to each user which recovers the original data based on its local common knowledge. At the BS side, the probability graph is used to extract multi-level semantic information. In the downlink transmission, a rate splitting scheme is adopted, while the private small-sized semantic information is transmitted through private message and the common knowledge is transmitted through common message. Due to limited wireless resource, both computation energy and transmission energy are considered. This joint computation and communication problem is formulated as an optimization problem aiming to minimize the total communication and computation energy consumption of the network under computation, latency, and transmit power constraints. To solve this problem, an alternating algorithm is proposed where the closed-form solutions for semantic information extraction ratio and computation frequency are obtained at each step. Numerical results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Modified Query Expansion Through Generative Adversarial Networks for Information Extraction in E-Commerce

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Dec 30, 2022
Altan Cakir, Mert Gurkan

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This work addresses an alternative approach for query expansion (QE) using a generative adversarial network (GAN) to enhance the effectiveness of information search in e-commerce. We propose a modified QE conditional GAN (mQE-CGAN) framework, which resolves keywords by expanding the query with a synthetically generated query that proposes semantic information from text input. We train a sequence-to-sequence transformer model as the generator to produce keywords and use a recurrent neural network model as the discriminator to classify an adversarial output with the generator. With the modified CGAN framework, various forms of semantic insights gathered from the query document corpus are introduced to the generation process. We leverage these insights as conditions for the generator model and discuss their effectiveness for the query expansion task. Our experiments demonstrate that the utilization of condition structures within the mQE-CGAN framework can increase the semantic similarity between generated sequences and reference documents up to nearly 10% compared to baseline models

* Submitted to Expert Systems with Applications