The Swin Transformer image super-resolution reconstruction network only relies on the long-range relationship of window attention and shifted window attention to explore features. This mechanism has two limitations. On the one hand, it only focuses on global features while ignoring local features. On the other hand, it is only concerned with spatial feature interactions while ignoring channel features and channel interactions, thus limiting its non-linear mapping ability. To address the above limitations, this paper proposes enhanced Swin Transformer modules via alternating aggregation of local-global features. In the local feature aggregation stage, we introduce a shift convolution to realize the interaction between local spatial information and channel information. Then, a block sparse global perception module is introduced in the global feature aggregation stage. In this module, we reorganize the spatial information first, then send the recombination information into a multi-layer perceptron unit to implement the global perception. After that, a multi-scale self-attention module and a low-parameter residual channel attention module are introduced to realize information aggregation at different scales. Finally, the proposed network is validated on five publicly available datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed network outperforms the other state-of-the-art super-resolution networks.
Sparse rewards are one of the factors leading to low sample efficiency in multi-goal reinforcement learning (RL). Based on Hindsight Experience Replay (HER), model-based relabeling methods have been proposed to relabel goals using virtual trajectories obtained by interacting with the trained model, which can effectively enhance the sample efficiency in accurately modelable sparse-reward environments. However, they are ineffective in robot manipulation environment. In our paper, we design a robust framework called Robust Model-based Hindsight Experience Replay (RoMo-HER) which can effectively utilize the dynamical model in robot manipulation environments to enhance the sample efficiency. RoMo-HER is built upon a dynamics model and a novel goal relabeling technique called Foresight relabeling (FR), which selects the prediction starting state with a specific strategy, predicts the future trajectory of the starting state, and then relabels the goal using the dynamics model and the latest policy to train the agent. Experimental results show that RoMo-HER has higher sample efficiency than HER and Model-based Hindsight Experience Replay in several simulated robot manipulation environments. Furthermore, we integrate RoMo-HER and Relay Hindsight Experience Replay (RHER), which currently exhibits the highest sampling efficiency in most benchmark environments, resulting in a novel approach called Robust Model-based Relay Hindsight Experience Replay (RoMo-RHER). Our experimental results demonstrate that RoMo-RHER achieves higher sample efficiency over RHER, outperforming RHER by 25% and 26% in FetchPush-v1 and FetchPickandPlace-v1, respectively.
In most urban and suburban areas, pole-like structures such as tree trunks or utility poles are ubiquitous. These structural landmarks are very useful for the localization of autonomous vehicles given their geometrical locations in maps and measurements from sensors. In this work, we aim at creating an accurate map for autonomous vehicles or robots with pole-like structures as the dominant localization landmarks, hence called pole-map. In contrast to the previous pole-based mapping or localization methods, we exploit the semantics of pole-like structures. Specifically, semantic segmentation is achieved by a new mask-range transformer network in a mask-classfication paradigm. With the semantics extracted for the pole-like structures in each frame, a multi-layer semantic pole-map is created by aggregating the detected pole-like structures from all frames. Given the semantic pole-map, we propose a semantic particle-filtering localization scheme for vehicle localization. Theoretically, we have analyzed why the semantic information can benefit the particle-filter localization, and empirically it is validated on the public SemanticKITTI dataset that the particle-filtering localization with semantics achieves much better performance than the counterpart without semantics when each particle's odometry prediction and/or the online observation is subject to uncertainties at significant levels.
Robot-assisted 3D printing has drawn a lot of attention by its capability to fabricate curved layers that are optimized according to different objectives. However, the support generation algorithm based on a fixed printing direction for planar layers cannot be directly applied for curved layers as the orientation of material accumulation is dynamically varied. In this paper, we propose a skeleton-based support generation method for robot-assisted 3D printing with curved layers. The support is represented as an implicit solid so that the problems of numerical robustness can be effectively avoided. The effectiveness of our algorithm is verified on a dual-material printing platform that consists of a robotic arm and a newly designed dual-material extruder. Experiments have been successfully conducted on our system to fabricate a variety of freeform models.
Range-view based LiDAR segmentation methods are attractive for practical applications due to their direct inheritance from efficient 2D CNN architectures. In literature, most range-view based methods follow the per-pixel classification paradigm. Recently, in the image segmentation domain, another paradigm formulates segmentation as a mask-classification problem and has achieved remarkable performance. This raises an interesting question: can the mask-classification paradigm benefit the range-view based LiDAR segmentation and achieve better performance than the counterpart per-pixel paradigm? To answer this question, we propose a unified mask-classification model, MaskRange, for the range-view based LiDAR semantic and panoptic segmentation. Along with the new paradigm, we also propose a novel data augmentation method to deal with overfitting, context-reliance, and class-imbalance problems. Extensive experiments are conducted on the SemanticKITTI benchmark. Among all published range-view based methods, our MaskRange achieves state-of-the-art performance with $66.10$ mIoU on semantic segmentation and promising results with $53.10$ PQ on panoptic segmentation with high efficiency. Our code will be released.
Enormous waves of technological innovations over the past several years, marked by the advances in AI technologies, are profoundly reshaping the industry and the society. However, down the road, a key challenge awaits us, that is, our capability of meeting rapidly-growing scenario-specific demands is severely limited by the cost of acquiring a commensurate amount of training data. This difficult situation is in essence due to limitations of the mainstream learning paradigm: we need to train a new model for each new scenario, based on a large quantity of well-annotated data and commonly from scratch. In tackling this fundamental problem, we move beyond and develop a new learning paradigm named INTERN. By learning with supervisory signals from multiple sources in multiple stages, the model being trained will develop strong generalizability. We evaluate our model on 26 well-known datasets that cover four categories of tasks in computer vision. In most cases, our models, adapted with only 10% of the training data in the target domain, outperform the counterparts trained with the full set of data, often by a significant margin. This is an important step towards a promising prospect where such a model with general vision capability can dramatically reduce our reliance on data, thus expediting the adoption of AI technologies. Furthermore, revolving around our new paradigm, we also introduce a new data system, a new architecture, and a new benchmark, which, together, form a general vision ecosystem to support its future development in an open and inclusive manner.
Salt and pepper noise removal is a common inverse problem in image processing. Traditional denoising methods have two limitations. First, noise characteristics are often not described accurately. For example, the noise location information is often ignored and the sparsity of the salt and pepper noise is often described by L1 norm, which cannot illustrate the sparse variables clearly. Second, conventional methods separate the contaminated image into a recovered image and a noise part, thus resulting in recovering an image with unsatisfied smooth parts and detail parts. In this study, we introduce a noise detection strategy to determine the position of the noise, and a non-convex sparsity regularization depicted by Lp quasi-norm is employed to describe the sparsity of the noise, thereby addressing the first limitation. The morphological component analysis framework with stationary Framelet transform is adopted to decompose the processed image into cartoon, texture, and noise parts to resolve the second limitation. Then, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is employed to solve the proposed model. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the proposed method and compare it with some current state-of-the-art denoising methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method can remove salt and pepper noise while preserving the details of the processed image.
We present a novel adversarial framework for training deep belief networks (DBNs), which includes replacing the generator network in the methodology of generative adversarial networks (GANs) with a DBN and developing a highly parallelizable numerical algorithm for training the resulting architecture in a stochastic manner. Unlike the existing techniques, this framework can be applied to the most general form of DBNs with no requirement for back propagation. As such, it lays a new foundation for developing DBNs on a par with GANs with various regularization units, such as pooling and normalization. Foregoing back-propagation, our framework also exhibits superior scalability as compared to other DBN and GAN learning techniques. We present a number of numerical experiments in computer vision as well as neurosciences to illustrate the main advantages of our approach.
We investigate the widely encountered problem of detecting communities in multiplex networks, such as social networks, with an unknown arbitrary heterogeneous structure. To improve detectability, we propose a generative model that leverages the multiplicity of a single community in multiple layers, with no prior assumption on the relation of communities among different layers. Our model relies on a novel idea of incorporating a large set of generic localized community label constraints across the layers, in conjunction with the celebrated Stochastic Block Model (SBM) in each layer. Accordingly, we build a probabilistic graphical model over the entire multiplex network by treating the constraints as Bayesian priors. We mathematically prove that these constraints/priors promote existence of identical communities across layers without introducing further correlation between individual communities. The constraints are further tailored to render a sparse graphical model and the numerically efficient Belief Propagation algorithm is subsequently employed. We further demonstrate by numerical experiments that in the presence of consistent communities between different layers, consistent communities are matched, and the detectability is improved over a single layer. We compare our model with a "correlated model" which exploits the prior knowledge of community correlation between layers. Similar detectability improvement is obtained under such a correlation, even though our model relies on much milder assumptions than the correlated model. Our model even shows a better detection performance over a certain correlation and signal to noise ratio (SNR) range. In the absence of community correlation, the correlation model naturally fails, while ours maintains its performance.