Instruction fine-tuned language models on a collection of instruction annotated datasets (FLAN) have shown highly effective to improve model performance and generalization to unseen tasks. However, a majority of standard parsing tasks including abstract meaning representation (AMR), universal dependency (UD), semantic role labeling (SRL) has been excluded from the FLAN collections for both model training and evaluations. In this paper, we take one of such instruction fine-tuned pre-trained language models, i.e. FLAN-T5, and fine-tune them for AMR parsing. Our extensive experiments on various AMR parsing tasks including AMR2.0, AMR3.0 and BioAMR indicate that FLAN-T5 fine-tuned models out-perform previous state-of-the-art models across all tasks. In addition, full fine-tuning followed by the parameter efficient fine-tuning, LoRA, further improves the model performances, setting new state-of-the-arts in Smatch on AMR2.0 (86.4), AMR3.0 (84.9) and BioAMR (82.3).
Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA) tasks that involve complex reasoning are emerging as an important research direction. However, most existing KBQA datasets focus primarily on generic multi-hop reasoning over explicit facts, largely ignoring other reasoning types such as temporal, spatial, and taxonomic reasoning. In this paper, we present a benchmark dataset for temporal reasoning, TempQA-WD, to encourage research in extending the present approaches to target a more challenging set of complex reasoning tasks. Specifically, our benchmark is a temporal question answering dataset with the following advantages: (a) it is based on Wikidata, which is the most frequently curated, openly available knowledge base, (b) it includes intermediate sparql queries to facilitate the evaluation of semantic parsing based approaches for KBQA, and (c) it generalizes to multiple knowledge bases: Freebase and Wikidata. The TempQA-WD dataset is available at https://github.com/IBM/tempqa-wd.
Despite extensive research on parsing of English sentences into Abstraction Meaning Representation (AMR) graphs, which are compared to gold graphs via the Smatch metric, full-document parsing into a unified graph representation lacks well-defined representation and evaluation. Taking advantage of a super-sentential level of coreference annotation from previous work, we introduce a simple algorithm for deriving a unified graph representation, avoiding the pitfalls of information loss from over-merging and lack of coherence from under-merging. Next, we describe improvements to the Smatch metric to make it tractable for comparing document-level graphs, and use it to re-evaluate the best published document-level AMR parser. We also present a pipeline approach combining the top performing AMR parser and coreference resolution systems, providing a strong baseline for future research.
We present a new cross-lingual information retrieval (CLIR) model trained using multi-stage knowledge distillation (KD). The teacher and the student are heterogeneous systems-the former is a pipeline that relies on machine translation and monolingual IR, while the latter executes a single CLIR operation. We show that the student can learn both multilingual representations and CLIR by optimizing two corresponding KD objectives. Learning multilingual representations from an English-only retriever is accomplished using a novel cross-lingual alignment algorithm that greedily re-positions the teacher tokens for alignment. Evaluation on the XOR-TyDi benchmark shows that the proposed model is far more effective than the existing approach of fine-tuning with cross-lingual labeled IR data, with a gain in accuracy of 25.4 Recall@5kt.
AMR parsing has experienced an unprecendented increase in performance in the last three years, due to a mixture of effects including architecture improvements and transfer learning. Self-learning techniques have also played a role in pushing performance forward. However, for most recent high performant parsers, the effect of self-learning and silver data generation seems to be fading. In this paper we show that it is possible to overcome this diminishing returns of silver data by combining Smatch-based ensembling techniques with ensemble distillation. In an extensive experimental setup, we push single model English parser performance above 85 Smatch for the first time and return to substantial gains. We also attain a new state-of-the-art for cross-lingual AMR parsing for Chinese, German, Italian and Spanish. Finally we explore the impact of the proposed distillation technique on domain adaptation, and show that it can produce gains rivaling those of human annotated data for QALD-9 and achieve a new state-of-the-art for BioAMR.
Predicting linearized Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) graphs using pre-trained sequence-to-sequence Transformer models has recently led to large improvements on AMR parsing benchmarks. These parsers are simple and avoid explicit modeling of structure but lack desirable properties such as graph well-formedness guarantees or built-in graph-sentence alignments. In this work we explore the integration of general pre-trained sequence-to-sequence language models and a structure-aware transition-based approach. We depart from a pointer-based transition system and propose a simplified transition set, designed to better exploit pre-trained language models for structured fine-tuning. We also explore modeling the parser state within the pre-trained encoder-decoder architecture and different vocabulary strategies for the same purpose. We provide a detailed comparison with recent progress in AMR parsing and show that the proposed parser retains the desirable properties of previous transition-based approaches, while being simpler and reaching the new parsing state of the art for AMR 2.0, without the need for graph re-categorization.
In many machine learning tasks, models are trained to predict structure data such as graphs. For example, in natural language processing, it is very common to parse texts into dependency trees or abstract meaning representation (AMR) graphs. On the other hand, ensemble methods combine predictions from multiple models to create a new one that is more robust and accurate than individual predictions. In the literature, there are many ensembling techniques proposed for classification or regression problems, however, ensemble graph prediction has not been studied thoroughly. In this work, we formalize this problem as mining the largest graph that is the most supported by a collection of graph predictions. As the problem is NP-Hard, we propose an efficient heuristic algorithm to approximate the optimal solution. To validate our approach, we carried out experiments in AMR parsing problems. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can combine the strength of state-of-the-art AMR parsers to create new predictions that are more accurate than any individual models in five standard benchmark datasets.
Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA) tasks that in-volve complex reasoning are emerging as an important re-search direction. However, most KBQA systems struggle withgeneralizability, particularly on two dimensions: (a) acrossmultiple reasoning types where both datasets and systems haveprimarily focused on multi-hop reasoning, and (b) across mul-tiple knowledge bases, where KBQA approaches are specif-ically tuned to a single knowledge base. In this paper, wepresent SYGMA, a modular approach facilitating general-izability across multiple knowledge bases and multiple rea-soning types. Specifically, SYGMA contains three high levelmodules: 1) KB-agnostic question understanding module thatis common across KBs 2) Rules to support additional reason-ing types and 3) KB-specific question mapping and answeringmodule to address the KB-specific aspects of the answer ex-traction. We demonstrate effectiveness of our system by evalu-ating on datasets belonging to two distinct knowledge bases,DBpedia and Wikidata. In addition, to demonstrate extensi-bility to additional reasoning types we evaluate on multi-hopreasoning datasets and a new Temporal KBQA benchmarkdataset on Wikidata, namedTempQA-WD1, introduced in thispaper. We show that our generalizable approach has bettercompetetive performance on multiple datasets on DBpediaand Wikidata that requires both multi-hop and temporal rea-soning
We develop high performance multilingualAbstract Meaning Representation (AMR) sys-tems by projecting English AMR annotationsto other languages with weak supervision. Weachieve this goal by bootstrapping transformer-based multilingual word embeddings, in partic-ular those from cross-lingual RoBERTa (XLM-R large). We develop a novel technique forforeign-text-to-English AMR alignment, usingthe contextual word alignment between En-glish and foreign language tokens. This wordalignment is weakly supervised and relies onthe contextualized XLM-R word embeddings.We achieve a highly competitive performancethat surpasses the best published results forGerman, Italian, Spanish and Chinese.
Knowledge base question answering (KBQA) is an important task in Natural Language Processing. Existing approaches face significant challenges including complex question understanding, necessity for reasoning, and lack of large training datasets. In this work, we propose a semantic parsing and reasoning-based Neuro-Symbolic Question Answering(NSQA) system, that leverages (1) Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) parses for task-independent question under-standing; (2) a novel path-based approach to transform AMR parses into candidate logical queries that are aligned to the KB; (3) a neuro-symbolic reasoner called Logical Neural Net-work (LNN) that executes logical queries and reasons over KB facts to provide an answer; (4) system of systems approach,which integrates multiple, reusable modules that are trained specifically for their individual tasks (e.g. semantic parsing,entity linking, and relationship linking) and do not require end-to-end training data. NSQA achieves state-of-the-art performance on QALD-9 and LC-QuAD 1.0. NSQA's novelty lies in its modular neuro-symbolic architecture and its task-general approach to interpreting natural language questions.