Incorporating factual knowledge in knowledge graph is regarded as a promising approach for mitigating the hallucination of large language models (LLMs). Existing methods usually only use the user's input to query the knowledge graph, thus failing to address the factual hallucination generated by LLMs during its reasoning process. To address this problem, this paper proposes Knowledge Graph-based Retrofitting (KGR), a new framework that incorporates LLMs with KGs to mitigate factual hallucination during the reasoning process by retrofitting the initial draft responses of LLMs based on the factual knowledge stored in KGs. Specifically, KGR leverages LLMs to extract, select, validate, and retrofit factual statements within the model-generated responses, which enables an autonomous knowledge verifying and refining procedure without any additional manual efforts. Experiments show that KGR can significantly improve the performance of LLMs on factual QA benchmarks especially when involving complex reasoning processes, which demonstrates the necessity and effectiveness of KGR in mitigating hallucination and enhancing the reliability of LLMs.
The Differentiable Search Index (DSI) is a novel information retrieval (IR) framework that utilizes a differentiable function to generate a sorted list of document identifiers in response to a given query. However, due to the black-box nature of the end-to-end neural architecture, it remains to be understood to what extent DSI possesses the basic indexing and retrieval abilities. To mitigate this gap, in this study, we define and examine three important abilities that a functioning IR framework should possess, namely, exclusivity, completeness, and relevance ordering. Our analytical experimentation shows that while DSI demonstrates proficiency in memorizing the unidirectional mapping from pseudo queries to document identifiers, it falls short in distinguishing relevant documents from random ones, thereby negatively impacting its retrieval effectiveness. To address this issue, we propose a multi-task distillation approach to enhance the retrieval quality without altering the structure of the model and successfully endow it with improved indexing abilities. Through experiments conducted on various datasets, we demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms previous DSI baselines.