This paper explores the effectiveness of model-generated signals in improving zero-shot generalization of text-to-text Transformers such as T5. We study various designs to pretrain T5 using an auxiliary model to construct more challenging token replacements for the main model to denoise. Key aspects under study include the decoding target, the location of the RTD head, and the masking pattern. Based on these studies, we develop a new model, METRO-T0, which is pretrained using the redesigned ELECTRA-Style pretraining strategies and then prompt-finetuned on a mixture of NLP tasks. METRO-T0 outperforms all similar-sized baselines on prompted NLP benchmarks, such as T0 Eval and MMLU, and rivals the state-of-the-art T0-11B model with only 8% of its parameters. Our analysis on model's neural activation and parameter sensitivity reveals that the effectiveness of METRO-T0 stems from more balanced contribution of parameters and better utilization of their capacity. The code and model checkpoints are available at https://github.com/gonglinyuan/metro_t0.
A big convergence of language, multimodal perception, action, and world modeling is a key step toward artificial general intelligence. In this work, we introduce Kosmos-1, a Multimodal Large Language Model (MLLM) that can perceive general modalities, learn in context (i.e., few-shot), and follow instructions (i.e., zero-shot). Specifically, we train Kosmos-1 from scratch on web-scale multimodal corpora, including arbitrarily interleaved text and images, image-caption pairs, and text data. We evaluate various settings, including zero-shot, few-shot, and multimodal chain-of-thought prompting, on a wide range of tasks without any gradient updates or finetuning. Experimental results show that Kosmos-1 achieves impressive performance on (i) language understanding, generation, and even OCR-free NLP (directly fed with document images), (ii) perception-language tasks, including multimodal dialogue, image captioning, visual question answering, and (iii) vision tasks, such as image recognition with descriptions (specifying classification via text instructions). We also show that MLLMs can benefit from cross-modal transfer, i.e., transfer knowledge from language to multimodal, and from multimodal to language. In addition, we introduce a dataset of Raven IQ test, which diagnoses the nonverbal reasoning capability of MLLMs.
Position modeling plays a critical role in Transformers. In this paper, we focus on length extrapolation, i.e., training on short texts while evaluating longer sequences. We define attention resolution as an indicator of extrapolation. Then we propose two designs to improve the above metric of Transformers. Specifically, we introduce a relative position embedding to explicitly maximize attention resolution. Moreover, we use blockwise causal attention during inference for better resolution. We evaluate different Transformer variants with language modeling. Experimental results show that our model achieves strong performance in both interpolation and extrapolation settings. The code will be available at https://aka.ms/LeX-Transformer.
Large Transformers have achieved state-of-the-art performance across many tasks. Most open-source libraries on scaling Transformers focus on improving training or inference with better parallelization. In this work, we present TorchScale, an open-source toolkit that allows researchers and developers to scale up Transformers efficiently and effectively. TorchScale has the implementation of several modeling techniques, which can improve modeling generality and capability, as well as training stability and efficiency. Experimental results on language modeling and neural machine translation demonstrate that TorchScale can successfully scale Transformers to different sizes without tears. The library is available at https://aka.ms/torchscale.
In this paper, we elaborate upon recipes for building multilingual representation models that are not only competitive with existing state-of-the-art models but are also more parameter efficient, thereby promoting better adoption in resource-constrained scenarios and practical applications. We show that going beyond English-centric bitexts, coupled with a novel sampling strategy aimed at reducing under-utilization of training data, substantially boosts performance across model sizes for both Electra and MLM pre-training objectives. We introduce XY-LENT: X-Y bitext enhanced Language ENcodings using Transformers which not only achieves state-of-the-art performance over 5 cross-lingual tasks within all model size bands, is also competitive across bands. Our XY-LENT XL variant outperforms XLM-RXXL and exhibits competitive performance with mT5 XXL while being 5x and 6x smaller respectively. We then show that our proposed method helps ameliorate the curse of multilinguality, with the XY-LENT XL achieving 99.3% GLUE performance and 98.5% SQuAD 2.0 performance compared to a SoTA English only model in the same size band. We then analyze our models performance on extremely low resource languages and posit that scaling alone may not be sufficient for improving the performance in this scenario
A big convergence of model architectures across language, vision, speech, and multimodal is emerging. However, under the same name "Transformers", the above areas use different implementations for better performance, e.g., Post-LayerNorm for BERT, and Pre-LayerNorm for GPT and vision Transformers. We call for the development of Foundation Transformer for true general-purpose modeling, which serves as a go-to architecture for various tasks and modalities with guaranteed training stability. In this work, we introduce a Transformer variant, named Magneto, to fulfill the goal. Specifically, we propose Sub-LayerNorm for good expressivity, and the initialization strategy theoretically derived from DeepNet for stable scaling up. Extensive experiments demonstrate its superior performance and better stability than the de facto Transformer variants designed for various applications, including language modeling (i.e., BERT, and GPT), machine translation, vision pretraining (i.e., BEiT), speech recognition, and multimodal pretraining (i.e., BEiT-3).
Sparse mixture of experts provides larger model capacity while requiring a constant computational overhead. It employs the routing mechanism to distribute input tokens to the best-matched experts according to their hidden representations. However, learning such a routing mechanism encourages token clustering around expert centroids, implying a trend toward representation collapse. In this work, we propose to estimate the routing scores between tokens and experts on a low-dimensional hypersphere. We conduct extensive experiments on cross-lingual language model pre-training and fine-tuning on downstream tasks. Experimental results across seven multilingual benchmarks show that our method achieves consistent gains. We also present a comprehensive analysis on the representation and routing behaviors of our models. Our method alleviates the representation collapse issue and achieves more consistent routing than the baseline mixture-of-experts methods.
We present an efficient method of pretraining large-scale autoencoding language models using training signals generated by an auxiliary model. Originated in ELECTRA, this training strategy has demonstrated sample-efficiency to pretrain models at the scale of hundreds of millions of parameters. In this work, we conduct a comprehensive empirical study, and propose a recipe, namely "Model generated dEnoising TRaining Objective" (METRO), which incorporates some of the best modeling techniques developed recently to speed up, stabilize, and enhance pretrained language models without compromising model effectiveness. The resultant models, METRO-LM, consisting of up to 5.4 billion parameters, achieve new state-of-the-art on the GLUE, SuperGLUE, and SQuAD benchmarks. More importantly, METRO-LM are efficient in that they often outperform previous large models with significantly smaller model sizes and lower pretraining cost.