The recent breakthroughs in natural language processing for model pretraining on large quantities of data have opened the way for similar foundation models in computer vision. These models could greatly simplify the use of images in any system by producing all-purpose visual features, i.e., features that work across image distributions and tasks without finetuning. This work shows that existing pretraining methods, especially self-supervised methods, can produce such features if trained on enough curated data from diverse sources. We revisit existing approaches and combine different techniques to scale our pretraining in terms of data and model size. Most of the technical contributions aim at accelerating and stabilizing the training at scale. In terms of data, we propose an automatic pipeline to build a dedicated, diverse, and curated image dataset instead of uncurated data, as typically done in the self-supervised literature. In terms of models, we train a ViT model (Dosovitskiy et al., 2020) with 1B parameters and distill it into a series of smaller models that surpass the best available all-purpose features, OpenCLIP (Ilharco et al., 2021) on most of the benchmarks at image and pixel levels.
This paper studies a simple extension of image-based Masked Autoencoders (MAE) to self-supervised representation learning from audio spectrograms. Following the Transformer encoder-decoder design in MAE, our Audio-MAE first encodes audio spectrogram patches with a high masking ratio, feeding only the non-masked tokens through encoder layers. The decoder then re-orders and decodes the encoded context padded with mask tokens, in order to reconstruct the input spectrogram. We find it beneficial to incorporate local window attention in the decoder, as audio spectrograms are highly correlated in local time and frequency bands. We then fine-tune the encoder with a lower masking ratio on target datasets. Empirically, Audio-MAE sets new state-of-the-art performance on six audio and speech classification tasks, outperforming other recent models that use external supervised pre-training. The code and models will be at https://github.com/facebookresearch/AudioMAE.
State-of-the-art vision and vision-and-language models rely on large-scale visio-linguistic pretraining for obtaining good performance on a variety of downstream tasks. Generally, such models are often either cross-modal (contrastive) or multi-modal (with earlier fusion) but not both; and they often only target specific modalities or tasks. A promising direction would be to use a single holistic universal model, as a "foundation", that targets all modalities at once -- a true vision and language foundation model should be good at vision tasks, language tasks, and cross- and multi-modal vision and language tasks. We introduce FLAVA as such a model and demonstrate impressive performance on a wide range of 35 tasks spanning these target modalities.
We present the Habitat-Matterport 3D (HM3D) dataset. HM3D is a large-scale dataset of 1,000 building-scale 3D reconstructions from a diverse set of real-world locations. Each scene in the dataset consists of a textured 3D mesh reconstruction of interiors such as multi-floor residences, stores, and other private indoor spaces. HM3D surpasses existing datasets available for academic research in terms of physical scale, completeness of the reconstruction, and visual fidelity. HM3D contains 112.5k m^2 of navigable space, which is 1.4 - 3.7x larger than other building-scale datasets such as MP3D and Gibson. When compared to existing photorealistic 3D datasets such as Replica, MP3D, Gibson, and ScanNet, images rendered from HM3D have 20 - 85% higher visual fidelity w.r.t. counterpart images captured with real cameras, and HM3D meshes have 34 - 91% fewer artifacts due to incomplete surface reconstruction. The increased scale, fidelity, and diversity of HM3D directly impacts the performance of embodied AI agents trained using it. In fact, we find that HM3D is `pareto optimal' in the following sense -- agents trained to perform PointGoal navigation on HM3D achieve the highest performance regardless of whether they are evaluated on HM3D, Gibson, or MP3D. No similar claim can be made about training on other datasets. HM3D-trained PointNav agents achieve 100% performance on Gibson-test dataset, suggesting that it might be time to retire that episode dataset.
We introduce Habitat 2.0 (H2.0), a simulation platform for training virtual robots in interactive 3D environments and complex physics-enabled scenarios. We make comprehensive contributions to all levels of the embodied AI stack - data, simulation, and benchmark tasks. Specifically, we present: (i) ReplicaCAD: an artist-authored, annotated, reconfigurable 3D dataset of apartments (matching real spaces) with articulated objects (e.g. cabinets and drawers that can open/close); (ii) H2.0: a high-performance physics-enabled 3D simulator with speeds exceeding 25,000 simulation steps per second (850x real-time) on an 8-GPU node, representing 100x speed-ups over prior work; and, (iii) Home Assistant Benchmark (HAB): a suite of common tasks for assistive robots (tidy the house, prepare groceries, set the table) that test a range of mobile manipulation capabilities. These large-scale engineering contributions allow us to systematically compare deep reinforcement learning (RL) at scale and classical sense-plan-act (SPA) pipelines in long-horizon structured tasks, with an emphasis on generalization to new objects, receptacles, and layouts. We find that (1) flat RL policies struggle on HAB compared to hierarchical ones; (2) a hierarchy with independent skills suffers from 'hand-off problems', and (3) SPA pipelines are more brittle than RL policies.
Performance on the most commonly used Visual Question Answering dataset (VQA v2) is starting to approach human accuracy. However, in interacting with state-of-the-art VQA models, it is clear that the problem is far from being solved. In order to stress test VQA models, we benchmark them against human-adversarial examples. Human subjects interact with a state-of-the-art VQA model, and for each image in the dataset, attempt to find a question where the model's predicted answer is incorrect. We find that a wide range of state-of-the-art models perform poorly when evaluated on these examples. We conduct an extensive analysis of the collected adversarial examples and provide guidance on future research directions. We hope that this Adversarial VQA (AdVQA) benchmark can help drive progress in the field and advance the state of the art.
* 22 pages, 13 figures. First two authors contributed equally
A crucial component for the scene text based reasoning required for TextVQA and TextCaps datasets involve detecting and recognizing text present in the images using an optical character recognition (OCR) system. The current systems are crippled by the unavailability of ground truth text annotations for these datasets as well as lack of scene text detection and recognition datasets on real images disallowing the progress in the field of OCR and evaluation of scene text based reasoning in isolation from OCR systems. In this work, we propose TextOCR, an arbitrary-shaped scene text detection and recognition with 900k annotated words collected on real images from TextVQA dataset. We show that current state-of-the-art text-recognition (OCR) models fail to perform well on TextOCR and that training on TextOCR helps achieve state-of-the-art performance on multiple other OCR datasets as well. We use a TextOCR trained OCR model to create PixelM4C model which can do scene text based reasoning on an image in an end-to-end fashion, allowing us to revisit several design choices to achieve new state-of-the-art performance on TextVQA dataset.