The recent breakthroughs in natural language processing for model pretraining on large quantities of data have opened the way for similar foundation models in computer vision. These models could greatly simplify the use of images in any system by producing all-purpose visual features, i.e., features that work across image distributions and tasks without finetuning. This work shows that existing pretraining methods, especially self-supervised methods, can produce such features if trained on enough curated data from diverse sources. We revisit existing approaches and combine different techniques to scale our pretraining in terms of data and model size. Most of the technical contributions aim at accelerating and stabilizing the training at scale. In terms of data, we propose an automatic pipeline to build a dedicated, diverse, and curated image dataset instead of uncurated data, as typically done in the self-supervised literature. In terms of models, we train a ViT model (Dosovitskiy et al., 2020) with 1B parameters and distill it into a series of smaller models that surpass the best available all-purpose features, OpenCLIP (Ilharco et al., 2021) on most of the benchmarks at image and pixel levels.
A natural question arising in Music Source Separation (MSS) is whether long range contextual information is useful, or whether local acoustic features are sufficient. In other fields, attention based Transformers have shown their ability to integrate information over long sequences. In this work, we introduce Hybrid Transformer Demucs (HT Demucs), an hybrid temporal/spectral bi-U-Net based on Hybrid Demucs, where the innermost layers are replaced by a cross-domain Transformer Encoder, using self-attention within one domain, and cross-attention across domains. While it performs poorly when trained only on MUSDB, we show that it outperforms Hybrid Demucs (trained on the same data) by 0.45 dB of SDR when using 800 extra training songs. Using sparse attention kernels to extend its receptive field, and per source fine-tuning, we achieve state-of-the-art results on MUSDB with extra training data, with 9.20 dB of SDR.
Recently, neural networks purely based on attention were shown to address image understanding tasks such as image classification. However, these visual transformers are pre-trained with hundreds of millions of images using an expensive infrastructure, thereby limiting their adoption. In this work, we produce a competitive convolution-free transformer by training on Imagenet only. We train them on a single computer in less than 3 days. Our reference vision transformer (86M parameters) achieves top-1 accuracy of 83.1% (single-crop evaluation) on ImageNet with no external data. More importantly, we introduce a teacher-student strategy specific to transformers. It relies on a distillation token ensuring that the student learns from the teacher through attention. We show the interest of this token-based distillation, especially when using a convnet as a teacher. This leads us to report results competitive with convnets for both Imagenet (where we obtain up to 85.2% accuracy) and when transferring to other tasks. We share our code and models.
We present a new method that views object detection as a direct set prediction problem. Our approach streamlines the detection pipeline, effectively removing the need for many hand-designed components like a non-maximum suppression procedure or anchor generation that explicitly encode our prior knowledge about the task. The main ingredients of the new framework, called DEtection TRansformer or DETR, are a set-based global loss that forces unique predictions via bipartite matching, and a transformer encoder-decoder architecture. Given a fixed small set of learned object queries, DETR reasons about the relations of the objects and the global image context to directly output the final set of predictions in parallel. The new model is conceptually simple and does not require a specialized library, unlike many other modern detectors. DETR demonstrates accuracy and run-time performance on par with the well-established and highly-optimized Faster RCNN baseline on the challenging COCO object detection dataset. Moreover, DETR can be easily generalized to produce panoptic segmentation in a unified manner. We show that it significantly outperforms competitive baselines. Training code and pretrained models are available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/detr.
Deep learning frameworks have often focused on either usability or speed, but not both. PyTorch is a machine learning library that shows that these two goals are in fact compatible: it provides an imperative and Pythonic programming style that supports code as a model, makes debugging easy and is consistent with other popular scientific computing libraries, while remaining efficient and supporting hardware accelerators such as GPUs. In this paper, we detail the principles that drove the implementation of PyTorch and how they are reflected in its architecture. We emphasize that every aspect of PyTorch is a regular Python program under the full control of its user. We also explain how the careful and pragmatic implementation of the key components of its runtime enables them to work together to achieve compelling performance. We demonstrate the efficiency of individual subsystems, as well as the overall speed of PyTorch on several common benchmarks.
Machine-learning (ML) hardware and software system demand is burgeoning. Driven by ML applications, the number of different ML inference systems has exploded. Over 100 organizations are building ML inference chips, and the systems that incorporate existing models span at least three orders of magnitude in power consumption and four orders of magnitude in performance; they range from embedded devices to data-center solutions. Fueling the hardware are a dozen or more software frameworks and libraries. The myriad combinations of ML hardware and ML software make assessing ML-system performance in an architecture-neutral, representative, and reproducible manner challenging. There is a clear need for industry-wide standard ML benchmarking and evaluation criteria. MLPerf Inference answers that call. Driven by more than 30 organizations as well as more than 200 ML engineers and practitioners, MLPerf implements a set of rules and practices to ensure comparability across systems with wildly differing architectures. In this paper, we present the method and design principles of the initial MLPerf Inference release. The first call for submissions garnered more than 600 inference-performance measurements from 14 organizations, representing over 30 systems that show a range of capabilities.
Frame interpolation attempts to synthesise intermediate frames given one or more consecutive video frames. In recent years, deep learning approaches, and in particular convolutional neural networks, have succeeded at tackling low- and high-level computer vision problems including frame interpolation. There are two main pursuits in this line of research, namely algorithm efficiency and reconstruction quality. In this paper, we present a multi-scale generative adversarial network for frame interpolation (FIGAN). To maximise the efficiency of our network, we propose a novel multi-scale residual estimation module where the predicted flow and synthesised frame are constructed in a coarse-to-fine fashion. To improve the quality of synthesised intermediate video frames, our network is jointly supervised at different levels with a perceptual loss function that consists of an adversarial and two content losses. We evaluate the proposed approach using a collection of 60fps videos from YouTube-8m. Our results improve the state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency, and a subjective visual quality comparable to the best performing interpolation method.
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) were recently shown to provide state-of-the-art results for object category viewpoint estimation. However different ways of formulating this problem have been proposed and the competing approaches have been explored with very different design choices. This paper presents a comparison of these approaches in a unified setting as well as a detailed analysis of the key factors that impact performance. Followingly, we present a new joint training method with the detection task and demonstrate its benefit. We also highlight the superiority of classification approaches over regression approaches, quantify the benefits of deeper architectures and extended training data, and demonstrate that synthetic data is beneficial even when using ImageNet training data. By combining all these elements, we demonstrate an improvement of approximately 5% mAVP over previous state-of-the-art results on the Pascal3D+ dataset. In particular for their most challenging 24 view classification task we improve the results from 31.1% to 36.1% mAVP.