The AI community has made significant strides in developing powerful foundation models, driven by large-scale multimodal datasets. However, in the audio representation learning community, the present audio-language datasets suffer from limitations such as insufficient volume, simplistic content, and arduous collection procedures. To tackle these challenges, we present an innovative and automatic audio caption generation pipeline based on a series of public tools or APIs, and construct a large-scale, high-quality, audio-language dataset, named as Auto-ACD, comprising over 1.9M audio-text pairs. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed dataset, we train popular models on our dataset and show performance improvement on various downstream tasks, namely, audio-language retrieval, audio captioning, environment classification. In addition, we establish a novel test set and provide a benchmark for audio-text tasks. The proposed dataset will be released at https://auto-acd.github.io/.
Magnetic resonance imaging~(MRI) have played a crucial role in brain disease diagnosis, with which a range of computer-aided artificial intelligence methods have been proposed. However, the early explorations usually focus on the limited types of brain diseases in one study and train the model on the data in a small scale, yielding the bottleneck of generalization. Towards a more effective and scalable paradigm, we propose a hierarchical knowledge-enhanced pre-training framework for the universal brain MRI diagnosis, termed as UniBrain. Specifically, UniBrain leverages a large-scale dataset of 24,770 imaging-report pairs from routine diagnostics. Different from previous pre-training techniques for the unitary vision or textual feature, or with the brute-force alignment between vision and language information, we leverage the unique characteristic of report information in different granularity to build a hierarchical alignment mechanism, which strengthens the efficiency in feature learning. Our UniBrain is validated on three real world datasets with severe class imbalance and the public BraTS2019 dataset. It not only consistently outperforms all state-of-the-art diagnostic methods by a large margin and provides a superior grounding performance but also shows comparable performance compared to expert radiologists on certain disease types.
Not all camouflages are equally effective, as even a partially visible contour or a slight color difference can make the animal stand out and break its camouflage. In this paper, we address the question of what makes a camouflage successful, by proposing three scores for automatically assessing its effectiveness. In particular, we show that camouflage can be measured by the similarity between background and foreground features and boundary visibility. We use these camouflage scores to assess and compare all available camouflage datasets. We also incorporate the proposed camouflage score into a generative model as an auxiliary loss and show that effective camouflage images or videos can be synthesised in a scalable manner. The generated synthetic dataset is used to train a transformer-based model for segmenting camouflaged animals in videos. Experimentally, we demonstrate state-of-the-art camouflage breaking performance on the public MoCA-Mask benchmark.
Although we have witnessed significant progress in human-object interaction (HOI) detection with increasingly high mAP (mean Average Precision), a single mAP score is too concise to obtain an informative summary of a model's performance and to understand why one approach is better than another. In this paper, we introduce a diagnosis toolbox for analyzing the error sources of the existing HOI detection models. We first conduct holistic investigations in the pipeline of HOI detection, consisting of human-object pair detection and then interaction classification. We define a set of errors and the oracles to fix each of them. By measuring the mAP improvement obtained from fixing an error using its oracle, we can have a detailed analysis of the significance of different errors. We then delve into the human-object detection and interaction classification, respectively, and check the model's behavior. For the first detection task, we investigate both recall and precision, measuring the coverage of ground-truth human-object pairs as well as the noisiness level in the detections. For the second classification task, we compute mAP for interaction classification only, without considering the detection scores. We also measure the performance of the models in differentiating human-object pairs with and without actual interactions using the AP (Average Precision) score. Our toolbox is applicable for different methods across different datasets and available at https://github.com/neu-vi/Diag-HOI.
In this study, we aim to initiate the development of Radiology Foundation Model, termed as RadFM.We consider the construction of foundational models from the perspectives of data, model design, and evaluation thoroughly. Our contribution can be concluded as follows: (i), we construct a large-scale Medical Multi-modal Dataset, MedMD, consisting of 16M 2D and 3D medical scans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multi-modal dataset containing 3D medical scans. (ii), We propose an architecture that enables visually conditioned generative pre-training, allowing for the integration of text input interleaved with 2D or 3D medical scans to generate response for diverse radiologic tasks. The model was initially pre-trained on MedMD and subsequently domain-specific fine-tuned on RadMD, a radiologic cleaned version of MedMD, containing 3M radiologic visual-language pairs. (iii), we propose a new evaluation benchmark that comprises five tasks, aiming to comprehensively assess the capability of foundation models in handling practical clinical problems. Our experimental results confirm that RadFM significantly outperforms existing multi-modal foundation models. The codes, data, and model checkpoint will all be made publicly available to promote further research and development in the field.
Multi-person motion prediction is a challenging problem due to the dependency of motion on both individual past movements and interactions with other people. Transformer-based methods have shown promising results on this task, but they miss the explicit relation representation between joints, such as skeleton structure and pairwise distance, which is crucial for accurate interaction modeling. In this paper, we propose the Joint-Relation Transformer, which utilizes relation information to enhance interaction modeling and improve future motion prediction. Our relation information contains the relative distance and the intra-/inter-person physical constraints. To fuse relation and joint information, we design a novel joint-relation fusion layer with relation-aware attention to update both features. Additionally, we supervise the relation information by forecasting future distance. Experiments show that our method achieves a 13.4% improvement of 900ms VIM on 3DPW-SoMoF/RC and 17.8%/12.0% improvement of 3s MPJPE on CMU-Mpcap/MuPoTS-3D dataset.
Video frame interpolation (VFI) is a challenging task that aims to generate intermediate frames between two consecutive frames in a video. Existing learning-based VFI methods have achieved great success, but they still suffer from limited generalization ability due to the limited motion distribution of training datasets. In this paper, we propose a novel optimization-based VFI method that can adapt to unseen motions at test time. Our method is based on a cycle-consistency adaptation strategy that leverages the motion characteristics among video frames. We also introduce a lightweight adapter that can be inserted into the motion estimation module of existing pre-trained VFI models to improve the efficiency of adaptation. Extensive experiments on various benchmarks demonstrate that our method can boost the performance of two-frame VFI models, outperforming the existing state-of-the-art methods, even those that use extra input.
Without accurate transcription of numerical data in scientific documents, a scientist cannot draw accurate conclusions. Unfortunately, the process of copying numerical data from one paper to another is prone to human error. In this paper, we propose to meet this challenge through the novel task of automatic table verification (AutoTV), in which the objective is to verify the accuracy of numerical data in tables by cross-referencing cited sources. To support this task, we propose a new benchmark, arXiVeri, which comprises tabular data drawn from open-access academic papers on arXiv. We introduce metrics to evaluate the performance of a table verifier in two key areas: (i) table matching, which aims to identify the source table in a cited document that corresponds to a target table, and (ii) cell matching, which aims to locate shared cells between a target and source table and identify their row and column indices accurately. By leveraging the flexible capabilities of modern large language models (LLMs), we propose simple baselines for table verification. Our findings highlight the complexity of this task, even for state-of-the-art LLMs like OpenAI's GPT-4. The code and benchmark will be made publicly available.
In this paper, we consider the problem of composed image retrieval (CIR), it aims to train a model that can fuse multi-modal information, e.g., text and images, to accurately retrieve images that match the query, extending the user's expression ability. We make the following contributions: (i) we initiate a scalable pipeline to automatically construct datasets for training CIR model, by simply exploiting a large-scale dataset of image-text pairs, e.g., a subset of LAION-5B; (ii) we introduce a transformer-based adaptive aggregation model, TransAgg, which employs a simple yet efficient fusion mechanism, to adaptively combine information from diverse modalities; (iii) we conduct extensive ablation studies to investigate the usefulness of our proposed data construction procedure, and the effectiveness of core components in TransAgg; (iv) when evaluating on the publicly available benckmarks under the zero-shot scenario, i.e., training on the automatically constructed datasets, then directly conduct inference on target downstream datasets, e.g., CIRR and FashionIQ, our proposed approach either performs on par with or significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art (SOTA) models. Project page: https://code-kunkun.github.io/ZS-CIR/