We propose Fast Language-Audio Pre-training (FLAP), a self-supervised approach that efficiently and effectively learns aligned audio and language representations through masking, contrastive learning and reconstruction. For efficiency, FLAP randomly drops audio spectrogram tokens, focusing solely on the remaining ones for self-supervision. Through inter-modal contrastive learning, FLAP learns to align paired audio and text representations in a shared latent space. Notably, FLAP leverages multiple augmented views via masking for inter-modal contrast and learns to reconstruct the masked portion of audio tokens. Moreover, FLAP leverages large language models (LLMs) to augment the text inputs, contributing to improved performance. These approaches lead to more robust and informative audio-text representations, enabling FLAP to achieve state-of-the-art (SoTA) performance on audio-text retrieval tasks on AudioCaps (achieving 53.0% R@1) and Clotho (achieving 25.5% R@1).
Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) is an approach that has advanced research and applications in computer vision, fueling modern recognition systems and generative models. We believe that the main ingredient to the success of CLIP is its data and not the model architecture or pre-training objective. However, CLIP only provides very limited information about its data and how it has been collected, leading to works that aim to reproduce CLIP's data by filtering with its model parameters. In this work, we intend to reveal CLIP's data curation approach and in our pursuit of making it open to the community introduce Metadata-Curated Language-Image Pre-training (MetaCLIP). MetaCLIP takes a raw data pool and metadata (derived from CLIP's concepts) and yields a balanced subset over the metadata distribution. Our experimental study rigorously isolates the model and training settings, concentrating solely on data. MetaCLIP applied to CommonCrawl with 400M image-text data pairs outperforms CLIP's data on multiple standard benchmarks. In zero-shot ImageNet classification, MetaCLIP achieves 70.8% accuracy, surpassing CLIP's 68.3% on ViT-B models. Scaling to 1B data, while maintaining the same training budget, attains 72.4%. Our observations hold across various model sizes, exemplified by ViT-H achieving 80.5%, without any bells-and-whistles. Curation code and training data distribution on metadata is made available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/MetaCLIP.
We present CM3Leon (pronounced "Chameleon"), a retrieval-augmented, token-based, decoder-only multi-modal language model capable of generating and infilling both text and images. CM3Leon uses the CM3 multi-modal architecture but additionally shows the extreme benefits of scaling up and tuning on more diverse instruction-style data. It is the first multi-modal model trained with a recipe adapted from text-only language models, including a large-scale retrieval-augmented pre-training stage and a second multi-task supervised fine-tuning (SFT) stage. It is also a general-purpose model that can do both text-to-image and image-to-text generation, allowing us to introduce self-contained contrastive decoding methods that produce high-quality outputs. Extensive experiments demonstrate that this recipe is highly effective for multi-modal models. CM3Leon achieves state-of-the-art performance in text-to-image generation with 5x less training compute than comparable methods (zero-shot MS-COCO FID of 4.88). After SFT, CM3Leon can also demonstrate unprecedented levels of controllability in tasks ranging from language-guided image editing to image-controlled generation and segmentation.
The Alexa Prize program has empowered numerous university students to explore, experiment, and showcase their talents in building conversational agents through challenges like the SocialBot Grand Challenge and the TaskBot Challenge. As conversational agents increasingly appear in multimodal and embodied contexts, it is important to explore the affordances of conversational interaction augmented with computer vision and physical embodiment. This paper describes the SimBot Challenge, a new challenge in which university teams compete to build robot assistants that complete tasks in a simulated physical environment. This paper provides an overview of the SimBot Challenge, which included both online and offline challenge phases. We describe the infrastructure and support provided to the teams including Alexa Arena, the simulated environment, and the ML toolkit provided to teams to accelerate their building of vision and language models. We summarize the approaches the participating teams took to overcome research challenges and extract key lessons learned. Finally, we provide analysis of the performance of the competing SimBots during the competition.
The recent breakthroughs in natural language processing for model pretraining on large quantities of data have opened the way for similar foundation models in computer vision. These models could greatly simplify the use of images in any system by producing all-purpose visual features, i.e., features that work across image distributions and tasks without finetuning. This work shows that existing pretraining methods, especially self-supervised methods, can produce such features if trained on enough curated data from diverse sources. We revisit existing approaches and combine different techniques to scale our pretraining in terms of data and model size. Most of the technical contributions aim at accelerating and stabilizing the training at scale. In terms of data, we propose an automatic pipeline to build a dedicated, diverse, and curated image dataset instead of uncurated data, as typically done in the self-supervised literature. In terms of models, we train a ViT model (Dosovitskiy et al., 2020) with 1B parameters and distill it into a series of smaller models that surpass the best available all-purpose features, OpenCLIP (Ilharco et al., 2021) on most of the benchmarks at image and pixel levels.
We introduce Alexa Arena, a user-centric simulation platform for Embodied AI (EAI) research. Alexa Arena provides a variety of multi-room layouts and interactable objects, for the creation of human-robot interaction (HRI) missions. With user-friendly graphics and control mechanisms, Alexa Arena supports the development of gamified robotic tasks readily accessible to general human users, thus opening a new venue for high-efficiency HRI data collection and EAI system evaluation. Along with the platform, we introduce a dialog-enabled instruction-following benchmark and provide baseline results for it. We make Alexa Arena publicly available to facilitate research in building generalizable and assistive embodied agents.
We present Masked Audio-Video Learners (MAViL) to train audio-visual representations. Our approach learns with three complementary forms of self-supervision: (1) reconstruction of masked audio and video input data, (2) intra- and inter-modal contrastive learning with masking, and (3) self-training by reconstructing joint audio-video contextualized features learned from the first two objectives. Pre-training with MAViL not only enables the model to perform well in audio-visual classification and retrieval tasks but also improves representations of each modality in isolation, without using information from the other modality for fine-tuning or inference. Empirically, MAViL sets a new state-of-the-art on AudioSet (53.1 mAP) and VGGSound (67.1% accuracy). For the first time, a self-supervised audio-visual model outperforms ones that use external supervision on these benchmarks. Code will be available soon.
We propose a multimodal (vision-and-language) benchmark for cooperative and heterogeneous multi-agent learning. We introduce a benchmark multimodal dataset with tasks involving collaboration between multiple simulated heterogeneous robots in a rich multi-room home environment. We provide an integrated learning framework, multimodal implementations of state-of-the-art multi-agent reinforcement learning techniques, and a consistent evaluation protocol. Our experiments investigate the impact of different modalities on multi-agent learning performance. We also introduce a simple message passing method between agents. The results suggest that multimodality introduces unique challenges for cooperative multi-agent learning and there is significant room for advancing multi-agent reinforcement learning methods in such settings.
The task of conducting visually grounded dialog involves learning goal-oriented cooperative dialog between autonomous agents who exchange information about a scene through several rounds of questions and answers in natural language. We posit that requiring artificial agents to adhere to the rules of human language, while also requiring them to maximize information exchange through dialog is an ill-posed problem. We observe that humans do not stray from a common language because they are social creatures who live in communities, and have to communicate with many people everyday, so it is far easier to stick to a common language even at the cost of some efficiency loss. Using this as inspiration, we propose and evaluate a multi-agent community-based dialog framework where each agent interacts with, and learns from, multiple agents, and show that this community-enforced regularization results in more relevant and coherent dialog (as judged by human evaluators) without sacrificing task performance (as judged by quantitative metrics).