We present a method to estimate human motion in a global scene from moving cameras. This is a highly challenging task due to the coupling of human and camera motions in the video. To address this problem, we propose a joint optimization framework that disentangles human and camera motions using both foreground human motion priors and background scene features. Unlike existing methods that use SLAM as initialization, we propose to tightly integrate SLAM and human motion priors in an optimization that is inspired by bundle adjustment. Specifically, we optimize human and camera motions to match both the observed human pose and scene features. This design combines the strengths of SLAM and motion priors, which leads to significant improvements in human and camera motion estimation. We additionally introduce a motion prior that is suitable for batch optimization, making our approach significantly more efficient than existing approaches. Finally, we propose a novel synthetic dataset that enables evaluating camera motion in addition to human motion from dynamic videos. Experiments on the synthetic and real-world RICH datasets demonstrate that our approach substantially outperforms prior art in recovering both human and camera motions.
Large language model (LLM) platforms, such as ChatGPT, have recently begun offering a plugin ecosystem to interface with third-party services on the internet. While these plugins extend the capabilities of LLM platforms, they are developed by arbitrary third parties and thus cannot be implicitly trusted. Plugins also interface with LLM platforms and users using natural language, which can have imprecise interpretations. In this paper, we propose a framework that lays a foundation for LLM platform designers to analyze and improve the security, privacy, and safety of current and future plugin-integrated LLM platforms. Our framework is a formulation of an attack taxonomy that is developed by iteratively exploring how LLM platform stakeholders could leverage their capabilities and responsibilities to mount attacks against each other. As part of our iterative process, we apply our framework in the context of OpenAI's plugin ecosystem. We uncover plugins that concretely demonstrate the potential for the types of issues that we outline in our attack taxonomy. We conclude by discussing novel challenges and by providing recommendations to improve the security, privacy, and safety of present and future LLM-based computing platforms.
While privacy-focused browsers have taken steps to block third-party cookies and browser fingerprinting, novel tracking methods that bypass existing defenses continue to emerge. Since trackers need to exfiltrate information from the client- to server-side through link decoration regardless of the tracking technique they employ, a promising orthogonal approach is to detect and sanitize tracking information in decorated links. We present PURL, a machine-learning approach that leverages a cross-layer graph representation of webpage execution to safely and effectively sanitize link decoration. Our evaluation shows that PURL significantly outperforms existing countermeasures in terms of accuracy and reducing website breakage while being robust to common evasion techniques. We use PURL to perform a measurement study on top-million websites. We find that link decorations are widely abused by well-known advertisers and trackers to exfiltrate user information collected from browser storage, email addresses, and scripts involved in fingerprinting.
We present a method that reconstructs and animates a 3D head avatar from a single-view portrait image. Existing methods either involve time-consuming optimization for a specific person with multiple images, or they struggle to synthesize intricate appearance details beyond the facial region. To address these limitations, we propose a framework that not only generalizes to unseen identities based on a single-view image without requiring person-specific optimization, but also captures characteristic details within and beyond the face area (e.g. hairstyle, accessories, etc.). At the core of our method are three branches that produce three tri-planes representing the coarse 3D geometry, detailed appearance of a source image, as well as the expression of a target image. By applying volumetric rendering to the combination of the three tri-planes followed by a super-resolution module, our method yields a high fidelity image of the desired identity, expression and pose. Once trained, our model enables efficient 3D head avatar reconstruction and animation via a single forward pass through a network. Experiments show that the proposed approach generalizes well to unseen validation datasets, surpassing SOTA baseline methods by a large margin on head avatar reconstruction and animation.
There is a growing demand for the accessible creation of high-quality 3D avatars that are animatable and customizable. Although 3D morphable models provide intuitive control for editing and animation, and robustness for single-view face reconstruction, they cannot easily capture geometric and appearance details. Methods based on neural implicit representations, such as signed distance functions (SDF) or neural radiance fields, approach photo-realism, but are difficult to animate and do not generalize well to unseen data. To tackle this problem, we propose a novel method for constructing implicit 3D morphable face models that are both generalizable and intuitive for editing. Trained from a collection of high-quality 3D scans, our face model is parameterized by geometry, expression, and texture latent codes with a learned SDF and explicit UV texture parameterization. Once trained, we can reconstruct an avatar from a single in-the-wild image by leveraging the learned prior to project the image into the latent space of our model. Our implicit morphable face models can be used to render an avatar from novel views, animate facial expressions by modifying expression codes, and edit textures by directly painting on the learned UV-texture maps. We demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively that our method improves upon photo-realism, geometry, and expression accuracy compared to state-of-the-art methods.
Denoising diffusion models hold great promise for generating diverse and realistic human motions. However, existing motion diffusion models largely disregard the laws of physics in the diffusion process and often generate physically-implausible motions with pronounced artifacts such as floating, foot sliding, and ground penetration. This seriously impacts the quality of generated motions and limits their real-world application. To address this issue, we present a novel physics-guided motion diffusion model (PhysDiff), which incorporates physical constraints into the diffusion process. Specifically, we propose a physics-based motion projection module that uses motion imitation in a physics simulator to project the denoised motion of a diffusion step to a physically-plausible motion. The projected motion is further used in the next diffusion step to guide the denoising diffusion process. Intuitively, the use of physics in our model iteratively pulls the motion toward a physically-plausible space. Experiments on large-scale human motion datasets show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art motion quality and improves physical plausibility drastically (>78% for all datasets).
We propose RANA, a relightable and articulated neural avatar for the photorealistic synthesis of humans under arbitrary viewpoints, body poses, and lighting. We only require a short video clip of the person to create the avatar and assume no knowledge about the lighting environment. We present a novel framework to model humans while disentangling their geometry, texture, and also lighting environment from monocular RGB videos. To simplify this otherwise ill-posed task we first estimate the coarse geometry and texture of the person via SMPL+D model fitting and then learn an articulated neural representation for photorealistic image generation. RANA first generates the normal and albedo maps of the person in any given target body pose and then uses spherical harmonics lighting to generate the shaded image in the target lighting environment. We also propose to pretrain RANA using synthetic images and demonstrate that it leads to better disentanglement between geometry and texture while also improving robustness to novel body poses. Finally, we also present a new photorealistic synthetic dataset, Relighting Humans, to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the proposed approach.
Acquisition and creation of digital human avatars is an important problem with applications to virtual telepresence, gaming, and human modeling. Most contemporary approaches for avatar generation can be viewed either as 3D-based methods, which use multi-view data to learn a 3D representation with appearance (such as a mesh, implicit surface, or volume), or 2D-based methods which learn photo-realistic renderings of avatars but lack accurate 3D representations. In this work, we present, DRaCoN, a framework for learning full-body volumetric avatars which exploits the advantages of both the 2D and 3D neural rendering techniques. It consists of a Differentiable Rasterization module, DiffRas, that synthesizes a low-resolution version of the target image along with additional latent features guided by a parametric body model. The output of DiffRas is then used as conditioning to our conditional neural 3D representation module (c-NeRF) which generates the final high-res image along with body geometry using volumetric rendering. While DiffRas helps in obtaining photo-realistic image quality, c-NeRF, which employs signed distance fields (SDF) for 3D representations, helps to obtain fine 3D geometric details. Experiments on the challenging ZJU-MoCap and Human3.6M datasets indicate that DRaCoN outperforms state-of-the-art methods both in terms of error metrics and visual quality.
Rendering articulated objects while controlling their poses is critical to applications such as virtual reality or animation for movies. Manipulating the pose of an object, however, requires the understanding of its underlying structure, that is, its joints and how they interact with each other. Unfortunately, assuming the structure to be known, as existing methods do, precludes the ability to work on new object categories. We propose to learn both the appearance and the structure of previously unseen articulated objects by observing them move from multiple views, with no additional supervision, such as joints annotations, or information about the structure. Our insight is that adjacent parts that move relative to each other must be connected by a joint. To leverage this observation, we model the object parts in 3D as ellipsoids, which allows us to identify joints. We combine this explicit representation with an implicit one that compensates for the approximation introduced. We show that our method works for different structures, from quadrupeds, to single-arm robots, to humans.
We present an approach for 3D global human mesh recovery from monocular videos recorded with dynamic cameras. Our approach is robust to severe and long-term occlusions and tracks human bodies even when they go outside the camera's field of view. To achieve this, we first propose a deep generative motion infiller, which autoregressively infills the body motions of occluded humans based on visible motions. Additionally, in contrast to prior work, our approach reconstructs human meshes in consistent global coordinates even with dynamic cameras. Since the joint reconstruction of human motions and camera poses is underconstrained, we propose a global trajectory predictor that generates global human trajectories based on local body movements. Using the predicted trajectories as anchors, we present a global optimization framework that refines the predicted trajectories and optimizes the camera poses to match the video evidence such as 2D keypoints. Experiments on challenging indoor and in-the-wild datasets with dynamic cameras demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms prior methods significantly in terms of motion infilling and global mesh recovery.