A growing number of applications depend on Machine Learning (ML) functionality and benefits from both higher quality ML predictions and better timeliness (latency) at the same time. A growing body of research in computer architecture, ML, and systems software literature focuses on reaching better latency-accuracy tradeoffs for ML models. Efforts include compression, quantization, pruning, early-exit models, mixed DNN precision, as well as ML inference accelerator designs that minimize latency and energy, while preserving delivered accuracy. All of them, however, yield improvements for a single static point in the latency-accuracy tradeoff space. We make a case for applications that operate in dynamically changing deployment scenarios, where no single static point is optimal. We draw on a recently proposed weight-shared SuperNet mechanism to enable serving a stream of queries that uses (activates) different SubNets within this weight-shared construct. This creates an opportunity to exploit the inherent temporal locality with our proposed SubGraph Stationary (SGS) optimization. We take a hardware-software co-design approach with a real implementation of SGS in SushiAccel and the implementation of a software scheduler SushiSched controlling which SubNets to serve and what to cache in real-time. Combined, they are vertically integrated into SUSHI-an inference serving stack. For the stream of queries, SUSHI yields up to 25% improvement in latency, 0.98% increase in served accuracy. SUSHI can achieve up to 78.7% off-chip energy savings.
Benchmarking and co-design are essential for driving optimizations and innovation around ML models, ML software, and next-generation hardware. Full workload benchmarks, e.g. MLPerf, play an essential role in enabling fair comparison across different software and hardware stacks especially once systems are fully designed and deployed. However, the pace of AI innovation demands a more agile methodology to benchmark creation and usage by simulators and emulators for future system co-design. We propose Chakra, an open graph schema for standardizing workload specification capturing key operations and dependencies, also known as Execution Trace (ET). In addition, we propose a complementary set of tools/capabilities to enable collection, generation, and adoption of Chakra ETs by a wide range of simulators, emulators, and benchmarks. For instance, we use generative AI models to learn latent statistical properties across thousands of Chakra ETs and use these models to synthesize Chakra ETs. These synthetic ETs can obfuscate key proprietary information and also target future what-if scenarios. As an example, we demonstrate an end-to-end proof-of-concept that converts PyTorch ETs to Chakra ETs and uses this to drive an open-source training system simulator (ASTRA-sim). Our end-goal is to build a vibrant industry-wide ecosystem of agile benchmarks and tools to drive future AI system co-design.
Collective communications are an indispensable part of distributed training. Running a topology-aware collective algorithm is crucial for optimizing communication performance by minimizing congestion. Today such algorithms only exist for a small set of simple topologies, limiting the topologies employed in training clusters and handling irregular topologies due to network failures. In this paper, we propose TACOS, an automated topology-aware collective synthesizer for arbitrary input network topologies. TACOS synthesized 3.73x faster All-Reduce algorithm over baselines, and synthesized collective algorithms for 512-NPU system in just 6.1 minutes.
Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER), and Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) programs organized and held the Artificial Intelligence for Earth System Predictability (AI4ESP) workshop series. From this workshop, a critical conclusion that the DOE BER and ASCR community came to is the requirement to develop a new paradigm for Earth system predictability focused on enabling artificial intelligence (AI) across the field, lab, modeling, and analysis activities, called ModEx. The BER's `Model-Experimentation', ModEx, is an iterative approach that enables process models to generate hypotheses. The developed hypotheses inform field and laboratory efforts to collect measurement and observation data, which are subsequently used to parameterize, drive, and test model (e.g., process-based) predictions. A total of 17 technical sessions were held in this AI4ESP workshop series. This paper discusses the topic of the `AI Architectures and Co-design' session and associated outcomes. The AI Architectures and Co-design session included two invited talks, two plenary discussion panels, and three breakout rooms that covered specific topics, including: (1) DOE HPC Systems, (2) Cloud HPC Systems, and (3) Edge computing and Internet of Things (IoT). We also provide forward-looking ideas and perspectives on potential research in this co-design area that can be achieved by synergies with the other 16 session topics. These ideas include topics such as: (1) reimagining co-design, (2) data acquisition to distribution, (3) heterogeneous HPC solutions for integration of AI/ML and other data analytics like uncertainty quantification with earth system modeling and simulation, and (4) AI-enabled sensor integration into earth system measurements and observations. Such perspectives are a distinguishing aspect of this paper.
As deep learning models and input data are scaling at an unprecedented rate, it is inevitable to move towards distributed training platforms to fit the model and increase training throughput. State-of-the-art approaches and techniques, such as wafer-scale nodes, multi-dimensional network topologies, disaggregated memory systems, and parallelization strategies, have been actively adopted by emerging distributed training systems. This results in a complex SW/HW co-design stack of distributed training, necessitating a modeling/simulation infrastructure for design-space exploration. In this paper, we extend the open-source ASTRA-sim infrastructure and endow it with the capabilities to model state-of-the-art and emerging distributed training models and platforms. More specifically, (i) we enable ASTRA-sim to support arbitrary model parallelization strategies via a graph-based training-loop implementation, (ii) we implement a parameterizable multi-dimensional heterogeneous topology generation infrastructure with analytical performance estimates enabling simulating target systems at scale, and (iii) we enhance the memory system modeling to support accurate modeling of in-network collective communication and disaggregated memory systems. With such capabilities, we run comprehensive case studies targeting emerging distributed models and platforms. This infrastructure lets system designers swiftly traverse the complex co-design stack and give meaningful insights when designing and deploying distributed training platforms at scale.
Deep Learning (DL) acceleration support in CPUs has recently gained a lot of traction, with several companies (Arm, Intel, IBM) announcing products with specialized matrix engines accessible via GEMM instructions. CPUs are pervasive and need to handle diverse requirements across DL workloads running in edge/HPC/cloud platforms. Therefore, as DL workloads embrace sparsity to reduce the computations and memory size of models, it is also imperative for CPUs to add support for sparsity to avoid under-utilization of the dense matrix engine and inefficient usage of the caches and registers. This work presents VEGETA, a set of ISA and microarchitecture extensions over dense matrix engines to support flexible structured sparsity for CPUs, enabling programmable support for diverse DL models with varying degrees of sparsity. Compared to the state-of-the-art (SOTA) dense matrix engine in CPUs, a VEGETA engine provides 1.09x, 2.20x, 3.74x, and 3.28x speed-ups when running 4:4 (dense), 2:4, 1:4, and unstructured (95%) sparse DNN layers.
Modern Deep Learning (DL) models have grown to sizes requiring massive clusters of specialized, high-end nodes to train. Designing such clusters to maximize both performance and utilization to amortize their steep cost is a challenging task requiring careful balance of compute, memory, and network resources. Moreover, a plethora of each model's tuning knobs drastically affect the performance, with optimal values often depending on the underlying cluster's characteristics, which necessitates a complex cluster-workload co-design process. To facilitate the design space exploration of such massive DL training clusters, we introduce COMET a holistic cluster design methodology and workflow to jointly study the impact of parallelization strategies and key cluster resource provisioning on the performance of distributed DL training. We develop a step-by-step process to establish a reusable and flexible methodology, and demonstrate its application with a case study of training a Transformer-1T model on a cluster of variable compute, memory, and network resources. Our case study demonstrates COMET's utility in identifying promising architectural optimization directions and guiding system designers in configuring key model and cluster parameters.
Real-time multi-model multi-task (MMMT) workloads, a new form of deep learning inference workloads, are emerging for applications areas like extended reality (XR) to support metaverse use cases. These workloads combine user interactivity with computationally complex machine learning (ML) activities. Compared to standard ML applications, these ML workloads present unique difficulties and constraints. Real-time MMMT workloads impose heterogeneity and concurrency requirements on future ML systems and devices, necessitating the development of new capabilities. This paper begins with a discussion of the various characteristics of these real-time MMMT ML workloads and presents an ontology for evaluating the performance of future ML hardware for XR systems. Next, we present XRBench, a collection of MMMT ML tasks, models, and usage scenarios that execute these models in three representative ways: cascaded, concurrent, and cascaded-concurrency for XR use cases. Finally, we emphasize the need for new metrics that capture the requirements properly. We hope that our work will stimulate research and lead to the development of a new generation of ML systems for XR use cases.