Emergence, a global property of complex adaptive systems (CASs) constituted by interactive agents, is prevalent in real-world dynamic systems, e.g., network-level traffic congestions. Detecting its formation and evaporation helps to monitor the state of a system, allowing to issue a warning signal for harmful emergent phenomena. Since there is no centralized controller of CAS, detecting emergence based on each agent's local observation is desirable but challenging. Existing works are unable to capture emergence-related spatial patterns, and fail to model the nonlinear relationships among agents. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework with spatio-temporal consistency learning to solve these two problems by learning the system representation and agent representations, respectively. Especially, spatio-temporal encoders are tailored to capture agents' nonlinear relationships and the system's complex evolution. Representations of the agents and the system are learned by preserving the intrinsic spatio-temporal consistency in a self-supervised manner. Our method achieves more accurate detection than traditional methods and deep learning methods on three datasets with well-known yet hard-to-detect emergent behaviors. Notably, our hierarchical framework is generic, which can employ other deep learning methods for agent-level and system-level detection.
With the help of Score Distillation Sampling(SDS) and the rapid development of various trainable 3D representations, Text-to-Image(T2I) diffusion models have been applied to 3D generation tasks and achieved considerable results. There are also some attempts toward the task of editing 3D objects leveraging this Text-to-3D pipeline. However, most methods currently focus on adding additional geometries, overwriting textures or both. But few of them can perform non-rigid transformation of 3D objects. For those who can perform non-rigid editing, on the other hand, suffer from low-resolution, lack of fidelity and poor flexibility. In order to address these issues, we present: Plasticine3D, a general, high-fidelity, photo-realistic and controllable non-rigid editing pipeline. Firstly, our work divides the editing process into a geometry editing stage and a texture editing stage to achieve more detailed and photo-realistic results ; Secondly, in order to perform non-rigid transformation with controllable results while maintain the fidelity towards original 3D models in the same time, we propose a multi-view-embedding(MVE) optimization strategy to ensure that the diffusion model learns the overall features of the original object and an embedding-fusion(EF) to control the degree of editing by adjusting the value of the fusing rate. We also design a geometry processing step before optimizing on the base geometry to cope with different needs of various editing tasks. Further more, to fully leverage the geometric prior from the original 3D object, we provide an optional replacement of score distillation sampling named score projection sampling(SPS) which enables us to directly perform optimization from the origin 3D mesh in most common median non-rigid editing scenarios. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on both the non-rigid 3D editing task and general 3D editing task.
Recently, there has been a growing interest in utilizing large language models (LLMs) in mental health research, with studies showcasing their remarkable capabilities, such as disease detection. However, there is currently a lack of a comprehensive benchmark for evaluating the capability of LLMs in this domain. Therefore, we address this gap by introducing the first comprehensive benchmark tailored to the unique characteristics of the mental health domain. This benchmark encompasses a total of six sub-tasks, covering three dimensions, to systematically assess the capabilities of LLMs in the realm of mental health. We have designed corresponding concise prompts for each sub-task. And we comprehensively evaluate a total of eight advanced LLMs using our benchmark. Experiment results not only demonstrate significant room for improvement in current LLMs concerning mental health but also unveil potential directions for future model optimization.
Recently, neural heuristics based on deep reinforcement learning have exhibited promise in solving multi-objective combinatorial optimization problems (MOCOPs). However, they are still struggling to achieve high learning efficiency and solution quality. To tackle this issue, we propose an efficient meta neural heuristic (EMNH), in which a meta-model is first trained and then fine-tuned with a few steps to solve corresponding single-objective subproblems. Specifically, for the training process, a (partial) architecture-shared multi-task model is leveraged to achieve parallel learning for the meta-model, so as to speed up the training; meanwhile, a scaled symmetric sampling method with respect to the weight vectors is designed to stabilize the training. For the fine-tuning process, an efficient hierarchical method is proposed to systematically tackle all the subproblems. Experimental results on the multi-objective traveling salesman problem (MOTSP), multi-objective capacitated vehicle routing problem (MOCVRP), and multi-objective knapsack problem (MOKP) show that, EMNH is able to outperform the state-of-the-art neural heuristics in terms of solution quality and learning efficiency, and yield competitive solutions to the strong traditional heuristics while consuming much shorter time.
With the fast-growing and evolving omics data, the demand for streamlined and adaptable tools to handle the analysis continues to grow. In response to this need, we introduce Auto Bioinformatics Analysis (AutoBA), an autonomous AI agent based on a large language model designed explicitly for conventional omics data analysis. AutoBA simplifies the analytical process by requiring minimal user input while delivering detailed step-by-step plans for various bioinformatics tasks. Through rigorous validation by expert bioinformaticians, AutoBA's robustness and adaptability are affirmed across a diverse range of omics analysis cases, including whole genome sequencing (WGS), RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), single-cell RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, and spatial transcriptomics. AutoBA's unique capacity to self-design analysis processes based on input data variations further underscores its versatility. Compared with online bioinformatic services, AutoBA deploys the analysis locally, preserving data privacy. Moreover, different from the predefined pipeline, AutoBA has adaptability in sync with emerging bioinformatics tools. Overall, AutoBA represents a convenient tool, offering robustness and adaptability for complex omics data analysis.
Vision transformer (ViT) and its variants have swept through visual learning leaderboards and offer state-of-the-art accuracy in tasks such as image classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation by attending to different parts of the visual input and capturing long-range spatial dependencies. However, these models are large and computation-heavy. For instance, the recently proposed ViT-B model has 86M parameters making it impractical for deployment on resource-constrained devices. As a result, their deployment on mobile and edge scenarios is limited. In our work, we aim to take a step toward bringing vision transformers to the edge by utilizing popular model compression techniques such as distillation, pruning, and quantization. Our chosen application environment is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is battery-powered and memory-constrained, carrying a single-board computer on the scale of an NVIDIA Jetson Nano with 4GB of RAM. On the other hand, the UAV requires high accuracy close to that of state-of-the-art ViTs to ensure safe object avoidance in autonomous navigation, or correct localization of humans in search-and-rescue. Inference latency should also be minimized given the application requirements. Hence, our target is to enable rapid inference of a vision transformer on an NVIDIA Jetson Nano (4GB) with minimal accuracy loss. This allows us to deploy ViTs on resource-constrained devices, opening up new possibilities in surveillance, environmental monitoring, etc. Our implementation is made available at https://github.com/chensy7/efficient-vit.
Diffusion models have demonstrated excellent performance in image generation. Although various few-shot semantic segmentation (FSS) models with different network structures have been proposed, performance improvement has reached a bottleneck. This paper presents the first work to leverage the diffusion model for FSS task, called DifFSS. DifFSS, a novel FSS paradigm, can further improve the performance of the state-of-the-art FSS models by a large margin without modifying their network structure. Specifically, we utilize the powerful generation ability of diffusion models to generate diverse auxiliary support images by using the semantic mask, scribble or soft HED boundary of the support image as control conditions. This generation process simulates the variety within the class of the query image, such as color, texture variation, lighting, $etc$. As a result, FSS models can refer to more diverse support images, yielding more robust representations, thereby achieving a consistent improvement in segmentation performance. Extensive experiments on three publicly available datasets based on existing advanced FSS models demonstrate the effectiveness of the diffusion model for FSS task. Furthermore, we explore in detail the impact of different input settings of the diffusion model on segmentation performance. Hopefully, this completely new paradigm will bring inspiration to the study of FSS task integrated with AI-generated content.
Empowering chatbots in the field of mental health is receiving increasing amount of attention, while there still lacks exploration in developing and evaluating chatbots in psychiatric outpatient scenarios. In this work, we focus on exploring the potential of ChatGPT in powering chatbots for psychiatrist and patient simulation. We collaborate with psychiatrists to identify objectives and iteratively develop the dialogue system to closely align with real-world scenarios. In the evaluation experiments, we recruit real psychiatrists and patients to engage in diagnostic conversations with the chatbots, collecting their ratings for assessment. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of using ChatGPT-powered chatbots in psychiatric scenarios and explore the impact of prompt designs on chatbot behavior and user experience.
Batching has a fundamental influence on the efficiency of deep neural network (DNN) execution. However, for dynamic DNNs, efficient batching is particularly challenging as the dataflow graph varies per input instance. As a result, state-of-the-art frameworks use heuristics that result in suboptimal batching decisions. Further, batching puts strict restrictions on memory adjacency and can lead to high data movement costs. In this paper, we provide an approach for batching dynamic DNNs based on finite state machines, which enables the automatic discovery of batching policies specialized for each DNN via reinforcement learning. Moreover, we find that memory planning that is aware of the batching policy can save significant data movement overheads, which is automated by a PQ tree-based algorithm we introduce. Experimental results show that our framework speeds up state-of-the-art frameworks by on average 1.15x, 1.39x, and 2.45x for chain-based, tree-based, and lattice-based DNNs across CPU and GPU.
Object detection and pose estimation are difficult tasks in robotics and autonomous driving. Existing object detection and pose estimation methods mostly adopt the same-dimensional data for training. For example, 2D object detection usually requires a large amount of 2D annotation data with high cost. Using high-dimensional information to supervise lower-dimensional tasks is a feasible way to reduce datasets size. In this work, the DR-WLC, a dimensionality reduction cognitive model, which can perform both object detection and pose estimation tasks at the same time is proposed. The model only requires 3D model of objects and unlabeled environment images (with or without objects) to finish the training. In addition, a bounding boxes generation strategy is also proposed to build the relationship between 3D model and 2D object detection task. Experiments show that our method can qualify the work without any manual annotations and it is easy to deploy for practical applications. Source code is at https://github.com/IN2-ViAUn/DR-WLC.