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Abstract:Multi-fidelity surrogate learning is important for physical simulation related applications in that it avoids running numerical solvers from scratch, which is known to be costly, and it uses multi-fidelity examples for training and greatly reduces the cost of data collection. Despite the variety of existing methods, they all build a model to map the input parameters outright to the solution output. Inspired by the recent breakthrough in generative models, we take an alternative view and consider the solution output as generated from random noises. We develop a diffusion-generative multi-fidelity (DGMF) learning method based on stochastic differential equations (SDE), where the generation is a continuous denoising process. We propose a conditional score model to control the solution generation by the input parameters and the fidelity. By conditioning on additional inputs (temporal or spacial variables), our model can efficiently learn and predict multi-dimensional solution arrays. Our method naturally unifies discrete and continuous fidelity modeling. The advantage of our method in several typical applications shows a promising new direction for multi-fidelity learning.

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Abstract:Tucker decomposition is a powerful tensor model to handle multi-aspect data. It demonstrates the low-rank property by decomposing the grid-structured data as interactions between a core tensor and a set of object representations (factors). A fundamental assumption of such decomposition is that there were finite objects in each aspect or mode, corresponding to discrete indexes of data entries. However, many real-world data are not naturally posed in the setting. For example, geographic data is represented as continuous indexes of latitude and longitude coordinates, and cannot fit tensor models directly. To generalize Tucker decomposition to such scenarios, we propose Functional Bayesian Tucker Decomposition (FunBaT). We treat the continuous-indexed data as the interaction between the Tucker core and a group of latent functions. We use Gaussian processes (GP) as functional priors to model the latent functions, and then convert the GPs into a state-space prior by constructing an equivalent stochastic differential equation (SDE) to reduce computational cost. An efficient inference algorithm is further developed for scalable posterior approximation based on advanced message-passing techniques. The advantage of our method is shown in both synthetic data and several real-world applications.

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Abstract:Machine learning based solvers have garnered much attention in physical simulation and scientific computing, with a prominent example, physics-informed neural networks (PINNs). However, PINNs often struggle to solve high-frequency and multi-scale PDEs, which can be due to spectral bias during neural network training. To address this problem, we resort to the Gaussian process (GP) framework. To flexibly capture the dominant frequencies, we model the power spectrum of the PDE solution with a student t mixture or Gaussian mixture. We then apply the inverse Fourier transform to obtain the covariance function (according to the Wiener-Khinchin theorem). The covariance derived from the Gaussian mixture spectrum corresponds to the known spectral mixture kernel. We are the first to discover its rationale and effectiveness for PDE solving. Next,we estimate the mixture weights in the log domain, which we show is equivalent to placing a Jeffreys prior. It automatically induces sparsity, prunes excessive frequencies, and adjusts the remaining toward the ground truth. Third, to enable efficient and scalable computation on massive collocation points, which are critical to capture high frequencies, we place the collocation points on a grid, and multiply our covariance function at each input dimension. We use the GP conditional mean to predict the solution and its derivatives so as to fit the boundary condition and the equation itself. As a result, we can derive a Kronecker product structure in the covariance matrix. We use Kronecker product properties and multilinear algebra to greatly promote computational efficiency and scalability, without any low-rank approximations. We show the advantage of our method in systematic experiments.

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Abstract:Practical tensor data is often along with time information. Most existing temporal decomposition approaches estimate a set of fixed factors for the objects in each tensor mode, and hence cannot capture the temporal evolution of the objects' representation. More important, we lack an effective approach to capture such evolution from streaming data, which is common in real-world applications. To address these issues, we propose Streaming Factor Trajectory Learning for temporal tensor decomposition. We use Gaussian processes (GPs) to model the trajectory of factors so as to flexibly estimate their temporal evolution. To address the computational challenges in handling streaming data, we convert the GPs into a state-space prior by constructing an equivalent stochastic differential equation (SDE). We develop an efficient online filtering algorithm to estimate a decoupled running posterior of the involved factor states upon receiving new data. The decoupled estimation enables us to conduct standard Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoothing to compute the full posterior of all the trajectories in parallel, without the need for revisiting any previous data. We have shown the advantage of SFTL in both synthetic tasks and real-world applications. The code is available at {https://github.com/xuangu-fang/Streaming-Factor-Trajectory-Learning}.

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Abstract:Tensor decomposition is an important tool for multiway data analysis. In practice, the data is often sparse yet associated with rich temporal information. Existing methods, however, often under-use the time information and ignore the structural knowledge within the sparsely observed tensor entries. To overcome these limitations and to better capture the underlying temporal structure, we propose Dynamic EMbedIngs fOr dynamic Tensor dEcomposition (DEMOTE). We develop a neural diffusion-reaction process to estimate dynamic embeddings for the entities in each tensor mode. Specifically, based on the observed tensor entries, we build a multi-partite graph to encode the correlation between the entities. We construct a graph diffusion process to co-evolve the embedding trajectories of the correlated entities and use a neural network to construct a reaction process for each individual entity. In this way, our model can capture both the commonalities and personalities during the evolution of the embeddings for different entities. We then use a neural network to model the entry value as a nonlinear function of the embedding trajectories. For model estimation, we combine ODE solvers to develop a stochastic mini-batch learning algorithm. We propose a stratified sampling method to balance the cost of processing each mini-batch so as to improve the overall efficiency. We show the advantage of our approach in both simulation study and real-world applications. The code is available at https://github.com/wzhut/Dynamic-Tensor-Decomposition-via-Neural-Diffusion-Reaction-Processes.

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Abstract:In real-world scenarios like traffic and energy, massive time-series data with missing values and noises are widely observed, even sampled irregularly. While many imputation methods have been proposed, most of them work with a local horizon, which means models are trained by splitting the long sequence into batches of fit-sized patches. This local horizon can make models ignore global trends or periodic patterns. More importantly, almost all methods assume the observations are sampled at regular time stamps, and fail to handle complex irregular sampled time series arising from different applications. Thirdly, most existing methods are learned in an offline manner. Thus, it is not suitable for many applications with fast-arriving streaming data. To overcome these limitations, we propose \ours: Bayesian Online Multivariate Time series Imputation with functional decomposition. We treat the multivariate time series as the weighted combination of groups of low-rank temporal factors with different patterns. We apply a group of Gaussian Processes (GPs) with different kernels as functional priors to fit the factors. For computational efficiency, we further convert the GPs into a state-space prior by constructing an equivalent stochastic differential equation (SDE), and developing a scalable algorithm for online inference. The proposed method can not only handle imputation over arbitrary time stamps, but also offer uncertainty quantification and interpretability for the downstream application. We evaluate our method on both synthetic and real-world datasets.

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Authors:Yu Chen, Wei Deng, Shikai Fang, Fengpei Li, Nicole Tianjiao Yang, Yikai Zhang, Kashif Rasul, Shandian Zhe, Anderson Schneider, Yuriy Nevmyvaka

Abstract:The Schr\"odinger bridge problem (SBP) is gaining increasing attention in generative modeling and showing promising potential even in comparison with the score-based generative models (SGMs). SBP can be interpreted as an entropy-regularized optimal transport problem, which conducts projections onto every other marginal alternatingly. However, in practice, only approximated projections are accessible and their convergence is not well understood. To fill this gap, we present a first convergence analysis of the Schr\"odinger bridge algorithm based on approximated projections. As for its practical applications, we apply SBP to probabilistic time series imputation by generating missing values conditioned on observed data. We show that optimizing the transport cost improves the performance and the proposed algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art result in healthcare and environmental data while exhibiting the advantage of exploring both temporal and feature patterns in probabilistic time series imputation.

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Abstract:Leveraging biased click data for optimizing learning to rank systems has been a popular approach in information retrieval. Because click data is often noisy and biased, a variety of methods have been proposed to construct unbiased learning to rank (ULTR) algorithms for the learning of unbiased ranking models. Among them, automatic unbiased learning to rank (AutoULTR) algorithms that jointly learn user bias models (i.e., propensity models) with unbiased rankers have received a lot of attention due to their superior performance and low deployment cost in practice. Despite their differences in theories and algorithm design, existing studies on ULTR usually use uni-variate ranking functions to score each document or result independently. On the other hand, recent advances in context-aware learning-to-rank models have shown that multivariate scoring functions, which read multiple documents together and predict their ranking scores jointly, are more powerful than uni-variate ranking functions in ranking tasks with human-annotated relevance labels. Whether such superior performance would hold in ULTR with noisy data, however, is mostly unknown. In this paper, we investigate existing multivariate scoring functions and AutoULTR algorithms in theory and prove that permutation invariance is a crucial factor that determines whether a context-aware learning-to-rank model could be applied to existing AutoULTR framework. Our experiments with synthetic clicks on two large-scale benchmark datasets show that AutoULTR models with permutation-invariant multivariate scoring functions significantly outperform those with uni-variate scoring functions and permutation-variant multivariate scoring functions.

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Abstract:Despite the success of existing tensor factorization methods, most of them conduct a multilinear decomposition, and rarely exploit powerful modeling frameworks, like deep neural networks, to capture a variety of complicated interactions in data. More important, for highly expressive, deep factorization, we lack an effective approach to handle streaming data, which are ubiquitous in real-world applications. To address these issues, we propose SPIDER, a Streaming ProbabilistIc Deep tEnsoR factorization method. We first use Bayesian neural networks (NNs) to construct a deep tensor factorization model. We assign a spike-and-slab prior over the NN weights to encourage sparsity and prevent overfitting. We then use Taylor expansions and moment matching to approximate the posterior of the NN output and calculate the running model evidence, based on which we develop an efficient streaming posterior inference algorithm in the assumed-density-filtering and expectation propagation framework. Our algorithm provides responsive incremental updates for the posterior of the latent factors and NN weights upon receiving new tensor entries, and meanwhile select and inhibit redundant/useless weights. We show the advantages of our approach in four real-world applications.

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