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Abstract:Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) are an increasingly popular class of techniques for the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs), where neural networks are trained using loss functions regularized by relevant PDE terms to enforce physical constraints. We present a new class of PINNs called HyResPINNs, which augment traditional PINNs with adaptive hybrid residual blocks that combine the outputs of a standard neural network and a radial basis function (RBF) network. A key feature of our method is the inclusion of adaptive combination parameters within each residual block, which dynamically learn to weigh the contributions of the neural network and RBF network outputs. Additionally, adaptive connections between residual blocks allow for flexible information flow throughout the network. We show that HyResPINNs are more robust to training point locations and neural network architectures than traditional PINNs. Moreover, HyResPINNs offer orders of magnitude greater accuracy than competing methods on certain problems, with only modest increases in training costs. We demonstrate the strengths of our approach on challenging PDEs, including the Allen-Cahn equation and the Darcy-Flow equation. Our results suggest that HyResPINNs effectively bridge the gap between traditional numerical methods and modern machine learning-based solvers.

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Abstract:Interest is rising in Physics-Informed Neural Networks (PINNs) as a mesh-free alternative to traditional numerical solvers for partial differential equations (PDEs). However, PINNs often struggle to learn high-frequency and multi-scale target solutions. To tackle this problem, we first study a strong Boundary Condition (BC) version of PINNs for Dirichlet BCs and observe a consistent decline in relative error compared to the standard PINNs. We then perform a theoretical analysis based on the Fourier transform and convolution theorem. We find that strong BC PINNs can better learn the amplitudes of high-frequency components of the target solutions. However, constructing the architecture for strong BC PINNs is difficult for many BCs and domain geometries. Enlightened by our theoretical analysis, we propose Fourier PINNs -- a simple, general, yet powerful method that augments PINNs with pre-specified, dense Fourier bases. Our proposed architecture likewise learns high-frequency components better but places no restrictions on the particular BCs or problem domains. We develop an adaptive learning and basis selection algorithm via alternating neural net basis optimization, Fourier and neural net basis coefficient estimation, and coefficient truncation. This scheme can flexibly identify the significant frequencies while weakening the nominal frequencies to better capture the target solution's power spectrum. We show the advantage of our approach through a set of systematic experiments.

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Abstract:We present polynomial-augmented neural networks (PANNs), a novel machine learning architecture that combines deep neural networks (DNNs) with a polynomial approximant. PANNs combine the strengths of DNNs (flexibility and efficiency in higher-dimensional approximation) with those of polynomial approximation (rapid convergence rates for smooth functions). To aid in both stable training and enhanced accuracy over a variety of problems, we present (1) a family of orthogonality constraints that impose mutual orthogonality between the polynomial and the DNN within a PANN; (2) a simple basis pruning approach to combat the curse of dimensionality introduced by the polynomial component; and (3) an adaptation of a polynomial preconditioning strategy to both DNNs and polynomials. We test the resulting architecture for its polynomial reproduction properties, ability to approximate both smooth functions and functions of limited smoothness, and as a method for the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). Through these experiments, we demonstrate that PANNs offer superior approximation properties to DNNs for both regression and the numerical solution of PDEs, while also offering enhanced accuracy over both polynomial and DNN-based regression (each) when regressing functions with limited smoothness.

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Abstract:Machine learning based solvers have garnered much attention in physical simulation and scientific computing, with a prominent example, physics-informed neural networks (PINNs). However, PINNs often struggle to solve high-frequency and multi-scale PDEs, which can be due to spectral bias during neural network training. To address this problem, we resort to the Gaussian process (GP) framework. To flexibly capture the dominant frequencies, we model the power spectrum of the PDE solution with a student t mixture or Gaussian mixture. We then apply the inverse Fourier transform to obtain the covariance function (according to the Wiener-Khinchin theorem). The covariance derived from the Gaussian mixture spectrum corresponds to the known spectral mixture kernel. We are the first to discover its rationale and effectiveness for PDE solving. Next,we estimate the mixture weights in the log domain, which we show is equivalent to placing a Jeffreys prior. It automatically induces sparsity, prunes excessive frequencies, and adjusts the remaining toward the ground truth. Third, to enable efficient and scalable computation on massive collocation points, which are critical to capture high frequencies, we place the collocation points on a grid, and multiply our covariance function at each input dimension. We use the GP conditional mean to predict the solution and its derivatives so as to fit the boundary condition and the equation itself. As a result, we can derive a Kronecker product structure in the covariance matrix. We use Kronecker product properties and multilinear algebra to greatly promote computational efficiency and scalability, without any low-rank approximations. We show the advantage of our method in systematic experiments.

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