The increasing demand for massive connectivity and high data rates has made the efficient use of existing spectrum resources an increasingly challenging problem. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is a potential solution for future heterogeneous networks (HetNets) due to its high capacity and spectrum efficiency. In this study, we analyze an uplink NOMA-enabled vehicular-aided HetNet, where multiple vehicular user equipment (VUEs) share the access link spectrum, and a high-altitude platform (HAP) communicates with roadside units (RSUs) through a backhaul communication link. We propose an improved algorithm for user association that selects VUEs for HAPs based on channel coefficient ratios and terrestrial VUEs based on a caching-state backhaul communication link. The joint optimization problems aim to maximize a utility function that considers VUE transmission rates and cross-tier interference while meeting the constraints of backhaul transmission rates and QoS requirements of each VUE. The joint resource allocation optimization problem consists of three sub-problems: bandwidth allocation, user association, and transmission power allocation. We derive a closed-form solution for bandwidth allocation and solve the transmission power allocation sub-problem iteratively using Taylor expansion to transform a non-convex term into a convex one. Our proposed three-stage iterative algorithm for resource allocation integrates all three sub-problems and is shown to be effective through simulation results. Specifically, the results demonstrate that our solution achieves performance improvements over existing approaches.
Intelligent Reconfigurable Surfaces (IRS) are crucial for overcoming challenges in coverage, capacity, and energy efficiency beyond 5G (B5G). The classical IRS architecture, employing a diagonal phase shift matrix, hampers effective passive beamforming manipulation. To unlock its full potential, Beyond Diagonal IRS (BD-IRS or IRS 2.0) emerges as a revolutionary member, transcending limitations of the diagonal IRS. This paper introduces BD-IRS deployed on unmanned aerial vehicles (BD-IRS-UAV) in Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) networks. Here, users offload tasks to the MEC server due to limited resources and finite battery life. The objective is to minimize worst-case system latency by optimizing BD-IRS-UAV deployment, local and edge computational resource allocation, task segmentation, power allocation, and received beamforming vector. The resulting non-convex/non-linear NP-hard optimization problem is intricate, prompting division into two subproblems: 1) BD-IRS-UAV deployment, local and edge computational resources, and task segmentation, and 2) power allocation, received beamforming, and phase shift design. Standard optimization methods efficiently solve each subproblem. Monte Carlo simulations provide numerical results, comparing the proposed BD-IRS-UAV-enabled MEC optimization framework with various benchmarks. Performance evaluations include comparisons with fully-connected and group-connected architectures, single-connected diagonal IRS, and binary offloading, edge computation, fixed computation, and local computation frameworks. Results show a 7.25% lower latency and a 17.77% improvement in data rate with BD-IRS compared to conventional diagonal IRS systems, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed optimization framework.
This study introduces a resource allocation framework for integrated satellite-terrestrial networks to address these challenges. The framework leverages local cache pool deployments and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) to reduce time delays and improve energy efficiency. Our proposed approach utilizes a multi-agent enabled deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm (MADDPG) to optimize user association, cache design, and transmission power control, resulting in enhanced energy efficiency. The approach comprises two phases: User Association and Power Control, where users are treated as agents, and Cache Optimization, where the satellite (Bs) is considered the agent. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate that our approach surpasses conventional single-agent deep reinforcement learning algorithms in addressing cache design and resource allocation challenges in integrated terrestrial-satellite networks. Specifically, our proposed approach achieves significantly higher energy efficiency and reduced time delays compared to existing methods.
Backscatter communication (BC) technology offers sustainable solutions for next-generation Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks, where devices can transmit data by reflecting and adjusting incident radio frequency signals. In parallel to BC, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has recently emerged as a promising tool to augment intelligence and optimize low-powered IoT devices. This article commences by elucidating the foundational principles underpinning BC systems, subsequently delving into the diverse array of DRL techniques and their respective practical implementations. Subsequently, it investigates potential domains and presents recent advancements in the realm of DRL-BC systems. A use case of RIS-aided non-orthogonal multiple access BC systems leveraging DRL is meticulously examined to highlight its potential. Lastly, this study identifies and investigates salient challenges and proffers prospective avenues for future research endeavors.
This study suggests a new strategy for improving congestion control by deploying Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks. LSTMs are recurrent neural networks (RNN), that excel at capturing temporal relationships and patterns in data. IoT-specific data such as network traffic patterns, device interactions, and congestion occurrences are gathered and analyzed. The gathered data is used to create and train an LSTM network architecture specific to the IoT environment. Then, the LSTM model's predictive skills are incorporated into the congestion control methods. This work intends to optimize congestion management methods using LSTM networks, which results in increased user satisfaction and dependable IoT connectivity. Utilizing metrics like throughput, latency, packet loss, and user satisfaction, the success of the suggested strategy is evaluated. Evaluation of performance includes rigorous testing and comparison to conventional congestion control methods.
This paper studies the potential of RIS-integrated NTNs to revolutionize the next-generation connectivity. First, it discusses the fundamentals of RIS technology. Secondly, it delves into reporting the recent advances in RIS-enabled NTNs. Subsequently, it presents a novel framework based on the current state-of-the-art for low earth orbit satellites (LEO) communications, wherein the signal received at the user terminal traverses both a direct link and an RIS link, and the RIS is mounted on a high-altitude platform (HAP) situated within the stratosphere. Finally, the paper concludes by highlighting open challenges and future research directions to revolutionize the realm of RIS-integrated NTNs.
Device-to-device (D2D) communications offers high spectral efficiency, low energy consumption and transmission latency. However, one of the main limitations of D2D communications is co-channel interference from underlaying wireless system. Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a promising technology because it can manipulate the electromagnetic waves in their environment to overcome interference and enhance wireless communications. This paper considers RIS enhanced D2D communications underlaying unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) networks with non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). The objective is to maximize the sum rate of NOMA D2D communications by simultaneously optimizing the power budget of D2D transmitter, NOMA power allocation coefficients of D2D receivers and passive beamforming of RIS while guaranteeing the quality of services of UAV user. Due to non-convexity, the optimization problem is intractable and challenging to handle. Therefore, it is solved in two parts using alternating optimization. Simulation results unviel the performance of the proposed RIS enhanced D2D communications scheme. Results demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieves 15\% and 27\% higher sum rates compared to the fixed power D2D and orthogonal D2D schemes.
This paper proposes an energy-efficient RIS-assisted downlink NOMA communication for LEO satellite networks. The proposed framework simultaneously optimizes the transmit power of ground terminals of the LEO satellite and the passive beamforming of RIS while ensuring the quality of services. Due to the nature of the considered system and optimization variables, the energy efficiency maximization problem is non-convex. In practice, obtaining the optimal solution for such problems is very challenging. Therefore, we adopt alternating optimization methods to handle the joint optimization in two steps. In step 1, for any given phase shift vector, we calculate satellite transmit power towards each ground terminal using the Lagrangian dual method. Then, in step 2, given the transmit power, we design passive beamforming for RIS by solving the semi-definite programming. We also compare our solution with a benchmark framework having a fixed phase shift design and a conventional NOMA framework without involving RIS. Numerical results show that the proposed optimization framework achieves 21.47\% and 54.9\% higher energy efficiency compared to the benchmark and conventional frameworks.
* 10,6. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with
This paper proposes an energy-efficient RIS-enabled NOMA communication for LEO satellite networks. The proposed framework simultaneously optimizes the transmit power of ground terminals at LEO satellite and passive beamforming at RIS while ensuring the quality of services. Due to the nature of the considered system and optimization variables, the problem of energy efficiency maximization is formulated as non-convex. In practice, it is very challenging to obtain the optimal solution for such problems. Therefore, we adopt alternating optimization methods to handle the joint optimization in two steps. In step 1, for any given phase shift vector, we calculate efficient power for ground terminals at satellite using Lagrangian dual method. Then, in step 2, given the transmit power, we design passive beamforming for RIS by solving the semi-definite programming. To validate the proposed solution, numerical results are also provided to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed optimization framework.
Fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks have led to the implementation of beyond 5G (B5G) networks, which are capable of incorporating autonomous services to swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). They provide capacity expansion strategies to address massive connectivity issues and guarantee ultra-high throughput and low latency, especially in extreme or emergency situations where network density, bandwidth, and traffic patterns fluctuate. On the one hand, 6G technology integrates AI/ML, IoT, and blockchain to establish ultra-reliable, intelligent, secure, and ubiquitous UAV networks. 6G networks, on the other hand, rely on new enabling technologies such as air interface and transmission technologies, as well as a unique network design, posing new challenges for the swarm of UAVs. Keeping these challenges in mind, this article focuses on the security and privacy, intelligence, and energy-efficiency issues faced by swarms of UAVs operating in 6G mobile networks. In this state-of-the-art review, we integrated blockchain and AI/ML with UAV networks utilizing the 6G ecosystem. The key findings are then presented, and potential research challenges are identified. We conclude the review by shedding light on future research in this emerging field of research.