Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Authors:Quentin Malartic, Nilabhra Roy Chowdhury, Ruxandra Cojocaru, Mugariya Farooq, Giulia Campesan, Yasser Abdelaziz Dahou Djilali, Sanath Narayan, Ankit Singh, Maksim Velikanov, Basma El Amel Boussaha(+7 more)

Abstract:We introduce Falcon2-11B, a foundation model trained on over five trillion tokens, and its multimodal counterpart, Falcon2-11B-vlm, which is a vision-to-text model. We report our findings during the training of the Falcon2-11B which follows a multi-stage approach where the early stages are distinguished by their context length and a final stage where we use a curated, high-quality dataset. Additionally, we report the effect of doubling the batch size mid-training and how training loss spikes are affected by the learning rate. The downstream performance of the foundation model is evaluated on established benchmarks, including multilingual and code datasets. The foundation model shows strong generalization across all the tasks which makes it suitable for downstream finetuning use cases. For the vision language model, we report the performance on several benchmarks and show that our model achieves a higher average score compared to open-source models of similar size. The model weights and code of both Falcon2-11B and Falcon2-11B-vlm are made available under a permissive license.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:This paper explores the effects of various forms of regularization in the context of language model alignment via self-play. While both reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) and direct preference optimization (DPO) require to collect costly human-annotated pairwise preferences, the self-play fine-tuning (SPIN) approach replaces the rejected answers by data generated from the previous iterate. However, the SPIN method presents a performance instability issue in the learning phase, which can be mitigated by playing against a mixture of the two previous iterates. In the same vein, we propose in this work to address this issue from two perspectives: first, by incorporating an additional Kullback-Leibler (KL) regularization to stay at the proximity of the reference policy; second, by using the idea of fictitious play which smoothens the opponent policy across all previous iterations. In particular, we show that the KL-based regularizer boils down to replacing the previous policy by its geometric mixture with the base policy inside of the SPIN loss function. We finally discuss empirical results on MT-Bench as well as on the Hugging Face Open LLM Leaderboard.

Via

Authors:Paul Mangold, Sergey Samsonov, Safwan Labbi, Ilya Levin, Reda Alami, Alexey Naumov, Eric Moulines

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:In this paper, we perform a non-asymptotic analysis of the federated linear stochastic approximation (FedLSA) algorithm. We explicitly quantify the bias introduced by local training with heterogeneous agents, and investigate the sample complexity of the algorithm. We show that the communication complexity of FedLSA scales polynomially with the desired precision $\epsilon$, which limits the benefits of federation. To overcome this, we propose SCAFFLSA, a novel variant of FedLSA, that uses control variates to correct the bias of local training, and prove its convergence without assumptions on statistical heterogeneity. We apply the proposed methodology to federated temporal difference learning with linear function approximation, and analyze the corresponding complexity improvements.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:In a typical stochastic multi-armed bandit problem, the objective is often to maximize the expected sum of rewards over some time horizon $T$. While the choice of a strategy that accomplishes that is optimal with no additional information, it is no longer the case when provided additional environment-specific knowledge. In particular, in areas of high volatility like healthcare or finance, a naive reward maximization approach often does not accurately capture the complexity of the learning problem and results in unreliable solutions. To tackle problems of this nature, we propose a framework of adaptive risk-aware strategies that operate in non-stationary environments. Our framework incorporates various risk measures prevalent in the literature to map multiple families of multi-armed bandit algorithms into a risk-sensitive setting. In addition, we equip the resulting algorithms with the Restarted Bayesian Online Change-Point Detection (R-BOCPD) algorithm and impose a (tunable) forced exploration strategy to detect local (per-arm) switches. We provide finite-time theoretical guarantees and an asymptotic regret bound of order $\tilde O(\sqrt{K_T T})$ up to time horizon $T$ with $K_T$ the total number of change-points. In practice, our framework compares favorably to the state-of-the-art in both synthetic and real-world environments and manages to perform efficiently with respect to both risk-sensitivity and non-stationarity.

Via

Abstract:In today's era, autonomous vehicles demand a safety level on par with aircraft. Taking a cue from the aerospace industry, which relies on redundancy to achieve high reliability, the automotive sector can also leverage this concept by building redundancy in V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) technologies. Given the current lack of reliable V2X technologies, this idea is particularly promising. By deploying multiple RATs (Radio Access Technologies) in parallel, the ongoing debate over the standard technology for future vehicles can be put to rest. However, coordinating multiple communication technologies is a complex task due to dynamic, time-varying channels and varying traffic conditions. This paper addresses the vertical handover problem in V2X using Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) algorithms. The goal is to assist vehicles in selecting the most appropriate V2X technology (DSRC/V-VLC) in a serpentine environment. The results show that the benchmarked algorithms outperform the current state-of-the-art approaches in terms of redundancy and usage rate of V-VLC headlights. This result is a significant reduction in communication costs while maintaining a high level of reliability. These results provide strong evidence for integrating advanced DRL decision mechanisms into the architecture as a promising approach to solving the vertical handover problem in V2X.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:In different wireless network scenarios, multiple network entities need to cooperate in order to achieve a common task with minimum delay and energy consumption. Future wireless networks mandate exchanging high dimensional data in dynamic and uncertain environments, therefore implementing communication control tasks becomes challenging and highly complex. Multi-agent reinforcement learning with emergent communication (EC-MARL) is a promising solution to address high dimensional continuous control problems with partially observable states in a cooperative fashion where agents build an emergent communication protocol to solve complex tasks. This paper articulates the importance of EC-MARL within the context of future 6G wireless networks, which imbues autonomous decision-making capabilities into network entities to solve complex tasks such as autonomous driving, robot navigation, flying base stations network planning, and smart city applications. An overview of EC-MARL algorithms and their design criteria are provided while presenting use cases and research opportunities on this emerging topic.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Reinforcement learning (RL) allows an agent interacting sequentially with an environment to maximize its long-term expected return. In the distributional RL (DistrRL) paradigm, the agent goes beyond the limit of the expected value, to capture the underlying probability distribution of the return across all time steps. The set of DistrRL algorithms has led to improved empirical performance. Nevertheless, the theory of DistrRL is still not fully understood, especially in the control case. In this paper, we present the simpler one-step distributional reinforcement learning (OS-DistrRL) framework encompassing only the randomness induced by the one-step dynamics of the environment. Contrary to DistrRL, we show that our approach comes with a unified theory for both policy evaluation and control. Indeed, we propose two OS-DistrRL algorithms for which we provide an almost sure convergence analysis. The proposed approach compares favorably with categorical DistrRL on various environments.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:This work studies non-cooperative Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) where multiple agents interact in the same environment and whose goal is to maximize the individual returns. Challenges arise when scaling up the number of agents due to the resultant non-stationarity that the many agents introduce. In order to address this issue, Mean Field Games (MFG) rely on the symmetry and homogeneity assumptions to approximate games with very large populations. Recently, deep Reinforcement Learning has been used to scale MFG to games with larger number of states. Current methods rely on smoothing techniques such as averaging the q-values or the updates on the mean-field distribution. This work presents a different approach to stabilize the learning based on proximal updates on the mean-field policy. We name our algorithm Mean Field Proximal Policy Optimization (MF-PPO), and we empirically show the effectiveness of our method in the OpenSpiel framework.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We consider the problem of learning in a non-stationary reinforcement learning (RL) environment, where the setting can be fully described by a piecewise stationary discrete-time Markov decision process (MDP). We introduce a variant of the Restarted Bayesian Online Change-Point Detection algorithm (R-BOCPD) that operates on input streams originating from the more general multinomial distribution and provides near-optimal theoretical guarantees in terms of false-alarm rate and detection delay. Based on this, we propose an improved version of the UCRL2 algorithm for MDPs with state transition kernel sampled from a multinomial distribution, which we call R-BOCPD-UCRL2. We perform a finite-time performance analysis and show that R-BOCPD-UCRL2 enjoys a favorable regret bound of $O\left(D O \sqrt{A T K_T \log\left (\frac{T}{\delta} \right) + \frac{K_T \log \frac{K_T}{\delta}}{\min\limits_\ell \: \mathbf{KL}\left( {\mathbf{\theta}^{(\ell+1)}}\mid\mid{\mathbf{\theta}^{(\ell)}}\right)}}\right)$, where $D$ is the largest MDP diameter from the set of MDPs defining the piecewise stationary MDP setting, $O$ is the finite number of states (constant over all changes), $A$ is the finite number of actions (constant over all changes), $K_T$ is the number of change points up to horizon $T$, and $\mathbf{\theta}^{(\ell)}$ is the transition kernel during the interval $[c_\ell, c_{\ell+1})$, which we assume to be multinomially distributed over the set of states $\mathbb{O}$. Interestingly, the performance bound does not directly scale with the variation in MDP state transition distributions and rewards, ie. can also model abrupt changes. In practice, R-BOCPD-UCRL2 outperforms the state-of-the-art in a variety of scenarios in synthetic environments. We provide a detailed experimental setup along with a code repository (upon publication) that can be used to easily reproduce our experiments.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Microgrids, self contained electrical grids that are capable of disconnecting from the main grid, hold potential in both tackling climate change mitigation via reducing CO2 emissions and adaptation by increasing infrastructure resiliency. Due to their distributed nature, microgrids are often idiosyncratic; as a result, control of these systems is nontrivial. While microgrid simulators exist, many are limited in scope and in the variety of microgrids they can simulate. We propose pymgrid, an open-source Python package to generate and simulate a large number of microgrids, and the first open-source tool that can generate more than 600 different microgrids. pymgrid abstracts most of the domain expertise, allowing users to focus on control algorithms. In particular, pymgrid is built to be a reinforcement learning (RL) platform, and includes the ability to model microgrids as Markov decision processes. pymgrid also introduces two pre-computed list of microgrids, intended to allow for research reproducibility in the microgrid setting.

Via