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Abstract:This paper provides theoretical insights into high-dimensional binary classification with class-conditional noisy labels. Specifically, we study the behavior of a linear classifier with a label noisiness aware loss function, when both the dimension of data $p$ and the sample size $n$ are large and comparable. Relying on random matrix theory by supposing a Gaussian mixture data model, the performance of the linear classifier when $p,n\to \infty$ is shown to converge towards a limit, involving scalar statistics of the data. Importantly, our findings show that the low-dimensional intuitions to handle label noise do not hold in high-dimension, in the sense that the optimal classifier in low-dimension dramatically fails in high-dimension. Based on our derivations, we design an optimized method that is shown to be provably more efficient in handling noisy labels in high dimensions. Our theoretical conclusions are further confirmed by experiments on real datasets, where we show that our optimized approach outperforms the considered baselines.

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Abstract:The phenomenon of model collapse, introduced in (Shumailov et al., 2023), refers to the deterioration in performance that occurs when new models are trained on synthetic data generated from previously trained models. This recursive training loop makes the tails of the original distribution disappear, thereby making future-generation models forget about the initial (real) distribution. With the aim of rigorously understanding model collapse in language models, we consider in this paper a statistical model that allows us to characterize the impact of various recursive training scenarios. Specifically, we demonstrate that model collapse cannot be avoided when training solely on synthetic data. However, when mixing both real and synthetic data, we provide an estimate of a maximal amount of synthetic data below which model collapse can eventually be avoided. Our theoretical conclusions are further supported by empirical validations.

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Abstract:This paper explores the effects of various forms of regularization in the context of language model alignment via self-play. While both reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) and direct preference optimization (DPO) require to collect costly human-annotated pairwise preferences, the self-play fine-tuning (SPIN) approach replaces the rejected answers by data generated from the previous iterate. However, the SPIN method presents a performance instability issue in the learning phase, which can be mitigated by playing against a mixture of the two previous iterates. In the same vein, we propose in this work to address this issue from two perspectives: first, by incorporating an additional Kullback-Leibler (KL) regularization to stay at the proximity of the reference policy; second, by using the idea of fictitious play which smoothens the opponent policy across all previous iterations. In particular, we show that the KL-based regularizer boils down to replacing the previous policy by its geometric mixture with the base policy inside of the SPIN loss function. We finally discuss empirical results on MT-Bench as well as on the Hugging Face Open LLM Leaderboard.

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Abstract:We study the estimation of a planted signal hidden in a recently introduced nested matrix-tensor model, which is an extension of the classical spiked rank-one tensor model, motivated by multi-view clustering. Prior work has theoretically examined the performance of a tensor-based approach, which relies on finding a best rank-one approximation, a problem known to be computationally hard. A tractable alternative approach consists in computing instead the best rank-one (matrix) approximation of an unfolding of the observed tensor data, but its performance was hitherto unknown. We quantify here the performance gap between these two approaches, in particular by deriving the precise algorithmic threshold of the unfolding approach and demonstrating that it exhibits a BBP-type transition behavior. This work is therefore in line with recent contributions which deepen our understanding of why tensor-based methods surpass matrix-based methods in handling structured tensor data.

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Authors:Mayug Maniparambil, Raiymbek Akshulakov, Yasser Abdelaziz Dahou Djilali, Sanath Narayan, Mohamed El Amine Seddik, Karttikeya Mangalam, Noel E. O'Connor

Abstract:Aligned text-image encoders such as CLIP have become the de facto model for vision-language tasks. Furthermore, modality-specific encoders achieve impressive performances in their respective domains. This raises a central question: does an alignment exist between uni-modal vision and language encoders since they fundamentally represent the same physical world? Analyzing the latent spaces structure of vision and language models on image-caption benchmarks using the Centered Kernel Alignment (CKA), we find that the representation spaces of unaligned and aligned encoders are semantically similar. In the absence of statistical similarity in aligned encoders like CLIP, we show that a possible matching of unaligned encoders exists without any training. We frame this as a seeded graph-matching problem exploiting the semantic similarity between graphs and propose two methods - a Fast Quadratic Assignment Problem optimization, and a novel localized CKA metric-based matching/retrieval. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this on several downstream tasks including cross-lingual, cross-domain caption matching and image classification.

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Authors:Mohamed El Amine Seddik, Maxime Guillaud, Alexis Decurninge, José Henrique de Morais Goulart

Abstract:This work introduces an asymptotic study of Hotelling-type tensor deflation in the presence of noise, in the regime of large tensor dimensions. Specifically, we consider a low-rank asymmetric tensor model of the form $\sum_{i=1}^r \beta_i{\mathcal{A}}_i + {\mathcal{W}}$ where $\beta_i\geq 0$ and the ${\mathcal{A}}_i$'s are unit-norm rank-one tensors such that $\left| \langle {\mathcal{A}}_i, {\mathcal{A}}_j \rangle \right| \in [0, 1]$ for $i\neq j$ and ${\mathcal{W}}$ is an additive noise term. Assuming that the dominant components are successively estimated from the noisy observation and subsequently subtracted, we leverage recent advances in random tensor theory in the regime of asymptotically large tensor dimensions to analytically characterize the estimated singular values and the alignment of estimated and true singular vectors at each step of the deflation procedure. Furthermore, this result can be used to construct estimators of the signal-to-noise ratios $\beta_i$ and the alignments between the estimated and true rank-1 signal components.

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Abstract:In this paper, we propose a nested matrix-tensor model which extends the spiked rank-one tensor model of order three. This model is particularly motivated by a multi-view clustering problem in which multiple noisy observations of each data point are acquired, with potentially non-uniform variances along the views. In this case, data can be naturally represented by an order-three tensor where the views are stacked. Given such a tensor, we consider the estimation of the hidden clusters via performing a best rank-one tensor approximation. In order to study the theoretical performance of this approach, we characterize the behavior of this best rank-one approximation in terms of the alignments of the obtained component vectors with the hidden model parameter vectors, in the large-dimensional regime. In particular, we show that our theoretical results allow us to anticipate the exact accuracy of the proposed clustering approach. Furthermore, numerical experiments indicate that leveraging our tensor-based approach yields better accuracy compared to a naive unfolding-based algorithm which ignores the underlying low-rank tensor structure. Our analysis unveils unexpected and non-trivial phase transition phenomena depending on the model parameters, ``interpolating'' between the typical behavior observed for the spiked matrix and tensor models.

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Abstract:This paper studies the deflation algorithm when applied to estimate a low-rank symmetric spike contained in a large tensor corrupted by additive Gaussian noise. Specifically, we provide a precise characterization of the large-dimensional performance of deflation in terms of the alignments of the vectors obtained by successive rank-1 approximation and of their estimated weights, assuming non-trivial (fixed) correlations among spike components. Our analysis allows an understanding of the deflation mechanism in the presence of noise and can be exploited for designing more efficient signal estimation methods.

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Abstract:This paper tackles the problem of recovering a low-rank signal tensor with possibly correlated components from a random noisy tensor, or so-called spiked tensor model. When the underlying components are orthogonal, they can be recovered efficiently using tensor deflation which consists of successive rank-one approximations, while non-orthogonal components may alter the tensor deflation mechanism, thereby preventing efficient recovery. Relying on recently developed random tensor tools, this paper deals precisely with the non-orthogonal case by deriving an asymptotic analysis of a parameterized deflation procedure performed on an order-three and rank-two spiked tensor. Based on this analysis, an efficient tensor deflation algorithm is proposed by optimizing the parameter introduced in the deflation mechanism, which in turn is proven to be optimal by construction for the studied tensor model. The same ideas could be extended to more general low-rank tensor models, e.g., higher ranks and orders, leading to more efficient tensor methods with a broader impact on machine learning and beyond.

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Abstract:Leveraging on recent advances in random tensor theory, we consider in this paper a rank-$r$ asymmetric spiked tensor model of the form $\sum_{i=1}^r \beta_i A_i + W$ where $\beta_i\geq 0$ and the $A_i$'s are rank-one tensors such that $\langle A_i, A_j \rangle\in [0, 1]$ for $i\neq j$, based on which we provide an asymptotic study of Hotelling-type tensor deflation in the large dimensional regime. Specifically, our analysis characterizes the singular values and alignments at each step of the deflation procedure, for asymptotically large tensor dimensions. This can be used to construct consistent estimators of different quantities involved in the underlying problem, such as the signal-to-noise ratios $\beta_i$ or the alignments between the different signal components $\langle A_i, A_j \rangle$.

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