This paper addresses the emerging task of recognizing multiple retinal diseases from wide-field (WF) and ultra-wide-field (UWF) fundus images. For an effective reuse of existing labeled color fundus photo (CFP) data, we propose Cross-domain Collaborative Learning (CdCL). Inspired by the success of fixed-ratio based mixup in unsupervised domain adaptation, we re-purpose this strategy for the current task. Due to the intrinsic disparity between the field-of-view of CFP and WF/UWF images, a scale bias naturally exists in a mixup sample that the anatomic structure from a CFP image will be considerably larger than its WF/UWF counterpart. The CdCL method resolves the issue by Scale-bias Correction, which employs Transformers for producing scale-invariant features. As demonstrated by extensive experiments on multiple datasets covering both WF and UWF images, the proposed method compares favorably against a number of competitive baselines.
For retinal image matching (RIM), we propose SuperRetina, the first end-to-end method with jointly trainable keypoint detector and descriptor. SuperRetina is trained in a novel semi-supervised manner. A small set of (nearly 100) images are incompletely labeled and used to supervise the network to detect keypoints on the vascular tree. To attack the incompleteness of manual labeling, we propose Progressive Keypoint Expansion to enrich the keypoint labels at each training epoch. By utilizing a keypoint-based improved triplet loss as its description loss, SuperRetina produces highly discriminative descriptors at full input image size. Extensive experiments on multiple real-world datasets justify the viability of SuperRetina. Even with manual labeling replaced by auto labeling and thus making the training process fully manual-annotation free, SuperRetina compares favorably against a number of strong baselines for two RIM tasks, i.e. image registration and identity verification. SuperRetina will be open source.
Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) is known to trade a model's performance on a source domain for improving its performance on a target domain. To resolve the issue, Unsupervised Domain Expansion (UDE) has been proposed recently to adapt the model for the target domain as UDA does, and in the meantime maintain its performance on the source domain. For both UDA and UDE, a model tailored to a given domain, let it be the source or the target domain, is assumed to well handle samples from the given domain. We question the assumption by reporting the existence of cross-domain visual ambiguity: Due to the lack of a crystally clear boundary between the two domains, samples from one domain can be visually close to the other domain. We exploit this finding and accordingly propose in this paper Co-Teaching (CT) that consists of knowledge distillation based CT (kdCT) and mixup based CT (miCT). Specifically, kdCT transfers knowledge from a leader-teacher network and an assistant-teacher network to a student network, so the cross-domain visual ambiguity will be better handled by the student. Meanwhile, miCT further enhances the generalization ability of the student. Comprehensive experiments on two image-classification benchmarks and two driving-scene-segmentation benchmarks justify the viability of the proposed method.
Towards automated retinal screening, this paper makes an endeavor to simultaneously achieve pixel-level retinal lesion segmentation and image-level disease classification. Such a multi-task approach is crucial for accurate and clinically interpretable disease diagnosis. Prior art is insufficient due to three challenges, that is, lesions lacking objective boundaries, clinical importance of lesions irrelevant to their size, and the lack of one-to-one correspondence between lesion and disease classes. This paper attacks the three challenges in the context of diabetic retinopathy (DR) grading. We propose L-Net, a new variant of fully convolutional networks, with its expansive path re-designed to tackle the first challenge. A dual loss that leverages both semantic segmentation and image classification losses is devised to resolve the second challenge. We propose Side-Attention Net (SiAN) as our multi-task framework. Harnessing L-Net as a side-attention branch, SiAN simultaneously improves DR grading and interprets the decision with lesion maps. A set of 12K fundus images is manually segmented by 45 ophthalmologists for 8 DR-related lesions, resulting in 290K manual segments in total. Extensive experiments on this large-scale dataset show that our proposed approach surpasses the prior art for multiple tasks including lesion segmentation, lesion classification and DR grading.
This paper contributes to cross-lingual image annotation and retrieval in terms of data and methods. We propose COCO-CN, a novel dataset enriching MS-COCO with manually written Chinese sentences and tags. For more effective annotation acquisition, we develop a recommendation-assisted collective annotation system, automatically providing an annotator with several tags and sentences deemed to be relevant with respect to the pictorial content. Having 20,342 images annotated with 27,218 Chinese sentences and 70,993 tags, COCO-CN is currently the largest Chinese-English dataset applicable for cross-lingual image tagging, captioning and retrieval. We develop methods per task for effectively learning from cross-lingual resources. Extensive experiments on the multiple tasks justify the viability of our dataset and methods.