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Prashant Khanduri

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FedDRO: Federated Compositional Optimization for Distributionally Robust Learning

Nov 21, 2023
Prashant Khanduri, Chengyin Li, Rafi Ibn Sultan, Yao Qiang, Joerg Kliewer, Dongxiao Zhu

Recently, compositional optimization (CO) has gained popularity because of its applications in distributionally robust optimization (DRO) and many other machine learning problems. Large-scale and distributed availability of data demands the development of efficient federated learning (FL) algorithms for solving CO problems. Developing FL algorithms for CO is particularly challenging because of the compositional nature of the objective. Moreover, current state-of-the-art methods to solve such problems rely on large batch gradients (depending on the solution accuracy) not feasible for most practical settings. To address these challenges, in this work, we propose efficient FedAvg-type algorithms for solving non-convex CO in the FL setting. We first establish that vanilla FedAvg is not suitable to solve distributed CO problems because of the data heterogeneity in the compositional objective at each client which leads to the amplification of bias in the local compositional gradient estimates. To this end, we propose a novel FL framework FedDRO that utilizes the DRO problem structure to design a communication strategy that allows FedAvg to control the bias in the estimation of the compositional gradient. A key novelty of our work is to develop solution accuracy-independent algorithms that do not require large batch gradients (and function evaluations) for solving federated CO problems. We establish $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^{-2})$ sample and $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^{-3/2})$ communication complexity in the FL setting while achieving linear speedup with the number of clients. We corroborate our theoretical findings with empirical studies on large-scale DRO problems.

* 38 Pages, 6 Figures 
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GeoSAM: Fine-tuning SAM with Sparse and Dense Visual Prompting for Automated Segmentation of Mobility Infrastructure

Nov 19, 2023
Rafi Ibn Sultan, Chengyin Li, Hui Zhu, Prashant Khanduri, Marco Brocanelli, Dongxiao Zhu

The Segment Anything Model (SAM) has shown impressive performance when applied to natural image segmentation. However, it struggles with geographical images like aerial and satellite imagery, especially when segmenting mobility infrastructure including roads, sidewalks, and crosswalks. This inferior performance stems from the narrow features of these objects, their textures blending into the surroundings, and interference from objects like trees, buildings, vehicles, and pedestrians - all of which can disorient the model to produce inaccurate segmentation maps. To address these challenges, we propose Geographical SAM (GeoSAM), a novel SAM-based framework that implements a fine-tuning strategy using the dense visual prompt from zero-shot learning, and the sparse visual prompt from a pre-trained CNN segmentation model. The proposed GeoSAM outperforms existing approaches for geographical image segmentation, specifically by 20%, 14.29%, and 17.65% for road infrastructure, pedestrian infrastructure, and on average, respectively, representing a momentous leap in leveraging foundation models to segment mobility infrastructure including both road and pedestrian infrastructure in geographical images.

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Interpretability-Aware Vision Transformer

Sep 14, 2023
Yao Qiang, Chengyin Li, Prashant Khanduri, Dongxiao Zhu

Vision Transformers (ViTs) have become prominent models for solving various vision tasks. However, the interpretability of ViTs has not kept pace with their promising performance. While there has been a surge of interest in developing {\it post hoc} solutions to explain ViTs' outputs, these methods do not generalize to different downstream tasks and various transformer architectures. Furthermore, if ViTs are not properly trained with the given data and do not prioritize the region of interest, the {\it post hoc} methods would be less effective. Instead of developing another {\it post hoc} approach, we introduce a novel training procedure that inherently enhances model interpretability. Our interpretability-aware ViT (IA-ViT) draws inspiration from a fresh insight: both the class patch and image patches consistently generate predicted distributions and attention maps. IA-ViT is composed of a feature extractor, a predictor, and an interpreter, which are trained jointly with an interpretability-aware training objective. Consequently, the interpreter simulates the behavior of the predictor and provides a faithful explanation through its single-head self-attention mechanism. Our comprehensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of IA-ViT in several image classification tasks, with both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of model performance and interpretability. Source code is available from:

* 10 pages, 4 figures, 5 tables 
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Auto-Prompting SAM for Mobile Friendly 3D Medical Image Segmentation

Aug 28, 2023
Chengyin Li, Prashant Khanduri, Yao Qiang, Rafi Ibn Sultan, Indrin Chetty, Dongxiao Zhu

The Segment Anything Model (SAM) has rapidly been adopted for segmenting a wide range of natural images. However, recent studies have indicated that SAM exhibits subpar performance on 3D medical image segmentation tasks. In addition to the domain gaps between natural and medical images, disparities in the spatial arrangement between 2D and 3D images, the substantial computational burden imposed by powerful GPU servers, and the time-consuming manual prompt generation impede the extension of SAM to a broader spectrum of medical image segmentation applications. To address these challenges, in this work, we introduce a novel method, AutoSAM Adapter, designed specifically for 3D multi-organ CT-based segmentation. We employ parameter-efficient adaptation techniques in developing an automatic prompt learning paradigm to facilitate the transformation of the SAM model's capabilities to 3D medical image segmentation, eliminating the need for manually generated prompts. Furthermore, we effectively transfer the acquired knowledge of the AutoSAM Adapter to other lightweight models specifically tailored for 3D medical image analysis, achieving state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance on medical image segmentation tasks. Through extensive experimental evaluation, we demonstrate the AutoSAM Adapter as a critical foundation for effectively leveraging the emerging ability of foundation models in 2D natural image segmentation for 3D medical image segmentation.

* 9 pages, 4 figures, 4 tables 
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An Introduction to Bi-level Optimization: Foundations and Applications in Signal Processing and Machine Learning

Aug 03, 2023
Yihua Zhang, Prashant Khanduri, Ioannis Tsaknakis, Yuguang Yao, Mingyi Hong, Sijia Liu

Recently, bi-level optimization (BLO) has taken center stage in some very exciting developments in the area of signal processing (SP) and machine learning (ML). Roughly speaking, BLO is a classical optimization problem that involves two levels of hierarchy (i.e., upper and lower levels), wherein obtaining the solution to the upper-level problem requires solving the lower-level one. BLO has become popular largely because it is powerful in modeling problems in SP and ML, among others, that involve optimizing nested objective functions. Prominent applications of BLO range from resource allocation for wireless systems to adversarial machine learning. In this work, we focus on a class of tractable BLO problems that often appear in SP and ML applications. We provide an overview of some basic concepts of this class of BLO problems, such as their optimality conditions, standard algorithms (including their optimization principles and practical implementations), as well as how they can be leveraged to obtain state-of-the-art results for a number of key SP and ML applications. Further, we discuss some recent advances in BLO theory, its implications for applications, and point out some limitations of the state-of-the-art that require significant future research efforts. Overall, we hope that this article can serve to accelerate the adoption of BLO as a generic tool to model, analyze, and innovate on a wide array of emerging SP and ML applications.

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Fairness-aware Vision Transformer via Debiased Self-Attention

Jan 31, 2023
Yao Qiang, Chengyin Li, Prashant Khanduri, Dongxiao Zhu

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Vision Transformer (ViT) has recently gained significant interest in solving computer vision (CV) problems due to its capability of extracting informative features and modeling long-range dependencies through the self-attention mechanism. To fully realize the advantages of ViT in real-world applications, recent works have explored the trustworthiness of ViT, including its robustness and explainability. However, another desiderata, fairness has not yet been adequately addressed in the literature. We establish that the existing fairness-aware algorithms (primarily designed for CNNs) do not perform well on ViT. This necessitates the need for developing our novel framework via Debiased Self-Attention (DSA). DSA is a fairness-through-blindness approach that enforces ViT to eliminate spurious features correlated with the sensitive attributes for bias mitigation. Notably, adversarial examples are leveraged to locate and mask the spurious features in the input image patches. In addition, DSA utilizes an attention weights alignment regularizer in the training objective to encourage learning informative features for target prediction. Importantly, our DSA framework leads to improved fairness guarantees over prior works on multiple prediction tasks without compromising target prediction performance

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DIAMOND: Taming Sample and Communication Complexities in Decentralized Bilevel Optimization

Dec 10, 2022
Peiwen Qiu, Yining Li, Zhuqing Liu, Prashant Khanduri, Jia Liu, Ness B. Shroff, Elizabeth Serena Bentley, Kurt Turck

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Decentralized bilevel optimization has received increasing attention recently due to its foundational role in many emerging multi-agent learning paradigms (e.g., multi-agent meta-learning and multi-agent reinforcement learning) over peer-to-peer edge networks. However, to work with the limited computation and communication capabilities of edge networks, a major challenge in developing decentralized bilevel optimization techniques is to lower sample and communication complexities. This motivates us to develop a new decentralized bilevel optimization called DIAMOND (decentralized single-timescale stochastic approximation with momentum and gradient-tracking). The contributions of this paper are as follows: i) our DIAMOND algorithm adopts a single-loop structure rather than following the natural double-loop structure of bilevel optimization, which offers low computation and implementation complexity; ii) compared to existing approaches, the DIAMOND algorithm does not require any full gradient evaluations, which further reduces both sample and computational complexities; iii) through a careful integration of momentum information and gradient tracking techniques, we show that the DIAMOND algorithm enjoys $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^{-3/2})$ in sample and communication complexities for achieving an $\epsilon$-stationary solution, both of which are independent of the dataset sizes and significantly outperform existing works. Extensive experiments also verify our theoretical findings.

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INTERACT: Achieving Low Sample and Communication Complexities in Decentralized Bilevel Learning over Networks

Jul 28, 2022
Zhuqing Liu, Xin Zhang, Prashant Khanduri, Songtao Lu, Jia Liu

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In recent years, decentralized bilevel optimization problems have received increasing attention in the networking and machine learning communities thanks to their versatility in modeling decentralized learning problems over peer-to-peer networks (e.g., multi-agent meta-learning, multi-agent reinforcement learning, personalized training, and Byzantine-resilient learning). However, for decentralized bilevel optimization over peer-to-peer networks with limited computation and communication capabilities, how to achieve low sample and communication complexities are two fundamental challenges that remain under-explored so far. In this paper, we make the first attempt to investigate the class of decentralized bilevel optimization problems with nonconvex and strongly-convex structure corresponding to the outer and inner subproblems, respectively. Our main contributions in this paper are two-fold: i) We first propose a deterministic algorithm called INTERACT (inner-gradient-descent-outer-tracked-gradient) that requires the sample complexity of $\mathcal{O}(n \epsilon^{-1})$ and communication complexity of $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^{-1})$ to solve the bilevel optimization problem, where $n$ and $\epsilon > 0$ are the number of samples at each agent and the desired stationarity gap, respectively. ii) To relax the need for full gradient evaluations in each iteration, we propose a stochastic variance-reduced version of INTERACT (SVR-INTERACT), which improves the sample complexity to $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{n} \epsilon^{-1})$ while achieving the same communication complexity as the deterministic algorithm. To our knowledge, this work is the first that achieves both low sample and communication complexities for solving decentralized bilevel optimization problems over networks. Our numerical experiments also corroborate our theoretical findings.

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