The challenge of imbalanced learning lies not only in class imbalance problem, but also in the class overlapping problem which is complex. However, most of the existing algorithms mainly focus on the former. The limitation prevents the existing methods from breaking through. To address this limitation, this paper proposes an ensemble learning algorithm based on dual clustering and stage-wise hybrid sampling (DCSHS). The DCSHS has three parts. Firstly, we design a projection clustering combination framework (PCC) guided by Davies-Bouldin clustering effectiveness index (DBI), which is used to obtain high-quality clusters and combine them to obtain a set of cross-complete subsets (CCS) with balanced class and low overlapping. Secondly, according to the characteristics of subset classes, a stage-wise hybrid sampling algorithm is designed to realize the de-overlapping and balancing of subsets. Finally, a projective clustering transfer mapping mechanism (CTM) is constructed for all processed subsets by means of transfer learning, thereby reducing class overlapping and explore structure information of samples. The major advantage of our algorithm is that it can exploit the intersectionality of the CCS to realize the soft elimination of overlapping majority samples, and learn as much information of overlapping samples as possible, thereby enhancing the class overlapping while class balancing. In the experimental section, more than 30 public datasets and over ten representative algorithms are chosen for verification. The experimental results show that the DCSHS is significantly best in terms of various evaluation criteria.
Stack autoencoder (SAE), as a representative deep network, has unique and excellent performance in feature learning, and has received extensive attention from researchers. However, existing deep SAEs focus on original samples without considering the hierarchical structural information between samples. To address this limitation, this paper proposes a new SAE model-neighbouring envelope embedded stack autoencoder ensemble (NE_ESAE). Firstly, the neighbouring sample envelope learning mechanism (NSELM) is proposed for preprocessing of input of SAE. NSELM constructs sample pairs by combining neighbouring samples. Besides, the NSELM constructs a multilayer sample spaces by multilayer iterative mean clustering, which considers the similar samples and generates layers of envelope samples with hierarchical structural information. Second, an embedded stack autoencoder (ESAE) is proposed and trained in each layer of sample space to consider the original samples during training and in the network structure, thereby better finding the relationship between original feature samples and deep feature samples. Third, feature reduction and base classifiers are conducted on the layers of envelope samples respectively, and output classification results of every layer of samples. Finally, the classification results of the layers of envelope sample space are fused through the ensemble mechanism. In the experimental section, the proposed algorithm is validated with over ten representative public datasets. The results show that our method significantly has better performance than existing traditional feature learning methods and the representative deep autoencoders.
The class imbalance problem is important and challenging. Ensemble approaches are widely used to tackle this problem because of their effectiveness. However, existing ensemble methods are always applied into original samples, while not considering the structure information among original samples. The limitation will prevent the imbalanced learning from being better. Besides, research shows that the structure information among samples includes local and global structure information. Based on the analysis above, an imbalanced ensemble algorithm with the deep sample pre-envelope network (DSEN) and local-global structure consistency mechanism (LGSCM) is proposed here to solve the problem.This algorithm can guarantee high-quality deep envelope samples for considering the local manifold and global structures information, which is helpful for imbalance learning. First, the deep sample envelope pre-network (DSEN) is designed to mine structure information among samples.Then, the local manifold structure metric (LMSM) and global structure distribution metric (GSDM) are designed to construct LGSCM to enhance distribution consistency of interlayer samples. Next, the DSEN and LGSCM are put together to form the final deep sample envelope network (DSEN-LG). After that, base classifiers are applied on the layers of deep samples respectively.Finally, the predictive results from base classifiers are fused through bagging ensemble learning mechanism. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, forty-four public datasets and more than ten representative relevant algorithms are chosen for verification. The experimental results show that the algorithm is significantly better than other imbalanced ensemble algorithms.
Parkinson disease (PD)'s speech recognition is an effective way for its diagnosis, which has become a hot and difficult research area in recent years. As we know, there are large corpuses (segments) within one subject. However, too large segments will increase the complexity of the classification model. Besides, the clinicians interested in finding diagnostic speech markers that reflect the pathology of the whole subject. Since the optimal relevant features of each speech sample segment are different, it is difficult to find the uniform diagnostic speech markers. Therefore, it is necessary to reconstruct the existing large segments within one subject into few segments even one segment within one subject, which can facilitate the extraction of relevant speech features to characterize diagnostic markers for the whole subject. To address this problem, an enveloped deep speech sample learning algorithm for Parkinson's subjects based on multilayer fuzzy c-mean (MlFCM) clustering and interlayer consistency preservation is proposed in this paper. The algorithm can be used to achieve intra-subject sample reconstruction for Parkinson's disease (PD) to obtain a small number of high-quality prototype sample segments. At the end of the paper, several representative PD speech datasets are selected and compared with the state-of-the-art related methods, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective signifcantly.
Imbalanced learning is important and challenging since the problem of the classification of imbalanced datasets is prevalent in machine learning and data mining fields. Sampling approaches are proposed to address this issue, and cluster-based oversampling methods have shown great potential as they aim to simultaneously tackle between-class and within-class imbalance issues. However, all existing clustering methods are based on a one-time approach. Due to the lack of a priori knowledge, improper setting of the number of clusters often exists, which leads to poor clustering performance. Besides, the existing methods are likely to generate noisy instances. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a deep instance envelope network-based imbalanced learning algorithm with the multilayer fuzzy c-means (MlFCM) and a minimum interlayer discrepancy mechanism based on the maximum mean discrepancy (MIDMD). This algorithm can guarantee high quality balanced instances using a deep instance envelope network in the absence of prior knowledge. In the experimental section, thirty-three popular public datasets are used for verification, and over ten representative algorithms are used for comparison. The experimental results show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms other popular methods.
The risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) is extremely serious, and PD speech recognition is an effective method of diagnosis nowadays. However, due to the influence of the disease stage, corpus, and other factors on data collection, the ability of every samples within one subject to reflect the status of PD vary. No samples are useless totally, and not samples are 100% perfect. This characteristic means that it is not suitable just to remove some samples or keep some samples. It is necessary to consider the sample transformation for obtaining high quality new samples. Unfortunately, existing PD speech recognition methods focus mainly on feature learning and classifier design rather than sample learning, and few methods consider the sample transformation. To solve the problem above, a PD speech sample transformation algorithm based on multitype reconstruction operators is proposed in this paper. The algorithm is divided into four major steps. Three types of reconstruction operators are designed in the algorithm: types A, B and C. Concerning the type A operator, the original dataset is directly reconstructed by designing a linear transformation to obtain the first dataset. The type B operator is designed for clustering and linear transformation of the dataset to obtain the second new dataset. The third operator, namely, the type C operator, reconstructs the dataset by clustering and convolution to obtain the third dataset. Finally, the base classifier is trained based on the three new datasets, and then the classification results are fused by decision weighting. In the experimental section, two representative PD speech datasets are used for verification. The results show that the proposed algorithm is effective. Compared with other algorithms, the proposed algorithm achieves apparent improvements in terms of classification accuracy.
High-resolution magnetic resonance images can provide fine-grained anatomical information, but acquiring such data requires a long scanning time. In this paper, a framework called the Fused Attentive Generative Adversarial Networks(FA-GAN) is proposed to generate the super-resolution MR image from low-resolution magnetic resonance images, which can reduce the scanning time effectively but with high resolution MR images. In the framework of the FA-GAN, the local fusion feature block, consisting of different three-pass networks by using different convolution kernels, is proposed to extract image features at different scales. And the global feature fusion module, including the channel attention module, the self-attention module, and the fusion operation, is designed to enhance the important features of the MR image. Moreover, the spectral normalization process is introduced to make the discriminator network stable. 40 sets of 3D magnetic resonance images (each set of images contains 256 slices) are used to train the network, and 10 sets of images are used to test the proposed method. The experimental results show that the PSNR and SSIM values of the super-resolution magnetic resonance image generated by the proposed FA-GAN method are higher than the state-of-the-art reconstruction methods.
In this survey, we systematically summarize the current literature on studies that apply reinforcement learning (RL) to the motion planning and control of autonomous vehicles. Many existing contributions can be attributed to the pipeline approach, which consists of many hand-crafted modules, each with a functionality selected for the ease of human interpretation. However, this approach does not automatically guarantee maximal performance due to the lack of a system-level optimization. Therefore, this paper also presents a growing trend of work that falls into the end-to-end approach, which typically offers better performance and smaller system scales. However, their performance also suffers from the lack of expert data and generalization issues. Finally, the remaining challenges applying deep RL algorithms on autonomous driving are summarized, and future research directions are also presented to tackle these challenges.
Learning from demonstrations has made great progress over the past few years. However, it is generally data hungry and task specific. In other words, it requires a large amount of data to train a decent model on a particular task, and the model often fails to generalize to new tasks that have a different distribution. In practice, demonstrations from new tasks will be continuously observed and the data might be unlabeled or only partially labeled. Therefore, it is desirable for the trained model to adapt to new tasks that have limited data samples available. In this work, we build an adaptable imitation learning model based on the integration of Meta-learning and Adversarial Inverse Reinforcement Learning (Meta-AIRL). We exploit the adversarial learning and inverse reinforcement learning mechanisms to learn policies and reward functions simultaneously from available training tasks and then adapt them to new tasks with the meta-learning framework. Simulation results show that the adapted policy trained with Meta-AIRL can effectively learn from limited number of demonstrations, and quickly reach the performance comparable to that of the experts on unseen tasks.
Machine-learning-based age estimation has received lots of attention. Traditional age estimation mechanism focuses estimation age error, but ignores that there is a deviation between the estimated age and real age due to disease. Pathological age estimation mechanism the author proposed before introduces age deviation to solve the above problem and improves classification capability of the estimated age significantly. However,it does not consider the age estimation error of the normal control (NC) group and results in a larger error between the estimated age and real age of NC group. Therefore, an integrated age estimation mechanism based on Decision-Level fusion of error and deviation orientation model is proposed to solve the problem.Firstly, the traditional age estimation and pathological age estimation mechanisms are weighted together.Secondly, their optimal weights are obtained by minimizing mean absolute error (MAE) between the estimated age and real age of normal people. In the experimental section, several representative age-related datasets are used for verification of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed age estimation mechanism achieves a good tradeoff effect of age estimation. It not only improves the classification ability of the estimated age, but also reduces the age estimation error of the NC group. In general, the proposed age estimation mechanism is effective. Additionally, the mechanism is a framework mechanism that can be used to construct different specific age estimation algorithms, contributing to relevant research.