The high-energy physics community is investigating the feasibility of deploying machine-learning-based solutions on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to improve physics sensitivity while meeting data processing latency limitations. In this contribution, we introduce a novel end-to-end procedure that utilizes a machine learning technique called symbolic regression (SR). It searches equation space to discover algebraic relations approximating a dataset. We use PySR (software for uncovering these expressions based on evolutionary algorithm) and extend the functionality of hls4ml (a package for machine learning inference in FPGAs) to support PySR-generated expressions for resource-constrained production environments. Deep learning models often optimise the top metric by pinning the network size because vast hyperparameter space prevents extensive neural architecture search. Conversely, SR selects a set of models on the Pareto front, which allows for optimising the performance-resource tradeoff directly. By embedding symbolic forms, our implementation can dramatically reduce the computational resources needed to perform critical tasks. We validate our procedure on a physics benchmark: multiclass classification of jets produced in simulated proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, and show that we approximate a 3-layer neural network with an inference model that has as low as 5 ns execution time (a reduction by a factor of 13) and over 90% approximation accuracy.
The findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR) data principles have provided a framework for examining, evaluating, and improving how we share data with the aim of facilitating scientific discovery. Efforts have been made to generalize these principles to research software and other digital products. Artificial intelligence (AI) models -- algorithms that have been trained on data rather than explicitly programmed -- are an important target for this because of the ever-increasing pace with which AI is transforming scientific and engineering domains. In this paper, we propose a practical definition of FAIR principles for AI models and create a FAIR AI project template that promotes adherence to these principles. We demonstrate how to implement these principles using a concrete example from experimental high energy physics: a graph neural network for identifying Higgs bosons decaying to bottom quarks. We study the robustness of these FAIR AI models and their portability across hardware architectures and software frameworks, and report new insights on the interpretability of AI predictions by studying the interplay between FAIR datasets and AI models. Enabled by publishing FAIR AI models, these studies pave the way toward reliable and automated AI-driven scientific discovery.
In this paper, we present a method of embedding physics data manifolds with metric structure into lower dimensional spaces with simpler metrics, such as Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We then demonstrate that it can be a powerful step in the data analysis pipeline for many applications. Using progressively more realistic simulated collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, we show that this embedding approach learns the underlying latent structure. With the notion of volume in Euclidean spaces, we provide for the first time a viable solution to quantifying the true search capability of model agnostic search algorithms in collider physics (i.e. anomaly detection). Finally, we discuss how the ideas presented in this paper can be employed to solve many practical challenges that require the extraction of physically meaningful representations from information in complex high dimensional datasets.
Recurrent neural networks have been shown to be effective architectures for many tasks in high energy physics, and thus have been widely adopted. Their use in low-latency environments has, however, been limited as a result of the difficulties of implementing recurrent architectures on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In this paper we present an implementation of two types of recurrent neural network layers -- long short-term memory and gated recurrent unit -- within the hls4ml framework. We demonstrate that our implementation is capable of producing effective designs for both small and large models, and can be customized to meet specific design requirements for inference latencies and FPGA resources. We show the performance and synthesized designs for multiple neural networks, many of which are trained specifically for jet identification tasks at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.
In this paper, we investigate how field programmable gate arrays can serve as hardware accelerators for real-time semantic segmentation tasks relevant for autonomous driving. Considering compressed versions of the ENet convolutional neural network architecture, we demonstrate a fully-on-chip deployment with a latency of 4.9 ms per image, using less than 30% of the available resources on a Xilinx ZCU102 evaluation board. The latency is reduced to 3 ms per image when increasing the batch size to ten, corresponding to the use case where the autonomous vehicle receives inputs from multiple cameras simultaneously. We show, through aggressive filter reduction and heterogeneous quantization-aware training, and an optimized implementation of convolutional layers, that the power consumption and resource utilization can be significantly reduced while maintaining accuracy on the Cityscapes dataset.
Machine learning (ML) is becoming an increasingly important component of cutting-edge physics research, but its computational requirements present significant challenges. In this white paper, we discuss the needs of the physics community regarding ML across latency and throughput regimes, the tools and resources that offer the possibility of addressing these needs, and how these can be best utilized and accessed in the coming years.
In this community review report, we discuss applications and techniques for fast machine learning (ML) in science -- the concept of integrating power ML methods into the real-time experimental data processing loop to accelerate scientific discovery. The material for the report builds on two workshops held by the Fast ML for Science community and covers three main areas: applications for fast ML across a number of scientific domains; techniques for training and implementing performant and resource-efficient ML algorithms; and computing architectures, platforms, and technologies for deploying these algorithms. We also present overlapping challenges across the multiple scientific domains where common solutions can be found. This community report is intended to give plenty of examples and inspiration for scientific discovery through integrated and accelerated ML solutions. This is followed by a high-level overview and organization of technical advances, including an abundance of pointers to source material, which can enable these breakthroughs.
To enable the reusability of massive scientific datasets by humans and machines, researchers aim to create scientific datasets that adhere to the principles of findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability (FAIR) for data and artificial intelligence (AI) models. This article provides a domain-agnostic, step-by-step assessment guide to evaluate whether or not a given dataset meets each FAIR principle. We then demonstrate how to use this guide to evaluate the FAIRness of an open simulated dataset produced by the CMS Collaboration at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. This dataset consists of Higgs boson decays and quark and gluon background, and is available through the CERN Open Data Portal. We also use other available tools to assess the FAIRness of this dataset, and incorporate feedback from members of the FAIR community to validate our results. This article is accompanied by a Jupyter notebook to facilitate an understanding and exploration of the dataset, including visualization of its elements. This study marks the first in a planned series of articles that will guide scientists in the creation and quantification of FAIRness in high energy particle physics datasets and AI models.
Despite advances in the programmable logic capabilities of modern trigger systems, a significant bottleneck remains in the amount of data to be transported from the detector to off-detector logic where trigger decisions are made. We demonstrate that a neural network autoencoder model can be implemented in a radiation tolerant ASIC to perform lossy data compression alleviating the data transmission problem while preserving critical information of the detector energy profile. For our application, we consider the high-granularity calorimeter from the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The advantage of the machine learning approach is in the flexibility and configurability of the algorithm. By changing the neural network weights, a unique data compression algorithm can be deployed for each sensor in different detector regions, and changing detector or collider conditions. To meet area, performance, and power constraints, we perform a quantization-aware training to create an optimized neural network hardware implementation. The design is achieved through the use of high-level synthesis tools and the hls4ml framework, and was processed through synthesis and physical layout flows based on a LP CMOS 65 nm technology node. The flow anticipates 200 Mrad of ionizing radiation to select gates, and reports a total area of 3.6 mm^2 and consumes 95 mW of power. The simulated energy consumption per inference is 2.4 nJ. This is the first radiation tolerant on-detector ASIC implementation of a neural network that has been designed for particle physics applications.