This work describes the investigation of neuromorphic computing-based spiking neural network (SNN) models used to filter data from sensor electronics in high energy physics experiments conducted at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. We present our approach for developing a compact neuromorphic model that filters out the sensor data based on the particle's transverse momentum with the goal of reducing the amount of data being sent to the downstream electronics. The incoming charge waveforms are converted to streams of binary-valued events, which are then processed by the SNN. We present our insights on the various system design choices - from data encoding to optimal hyperparameters of the training algorithm - for an accurate and compact SNN optimized for hardware deployment. Our results show that an SNN trained with an evolutionary algorithm and an optimized set of hyperparameters obtains a signal efficiency of about 91% with nearly half as many parameters as a deep neural network.
The Earth mover's distance (EMD) is a useful metric for image recognition and classification, but its usual implementations are not differentiable or too slow to be used as a loss function for training other algorithms via gradient descent. In this paper, we train a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn a differentiable, fast approximation of the EMD and demonstrate that it can be used as a substitute for computing-intensive EMD implementations. We apply this differentiable approximation in the training of an autoencoder-inspired neural network (encoder NN) for data compression at the high-luminosity LHC at CERN. The goal of this encoder NN is to compress the data while preserving the information related to the distribution of energy deposits in particle detectors. We demonstrate that the performance of our encoder NN trained using the differentiable EMD CNN surpasses that of training with loss functions based on mean squared error.
In many real-world applications, graph-structured data used for training and testing have differences in distribution, such as in high energy physics (HEP) where simulation data used for training may not match real experiments. Graph domain adaptation (GDA) is a method used to address these differences. However, current GDA primarily works by aligning the distributions of node representations output by a single graph neural network encoder shared across the training and testing domains, which may often yield sub-optimal solutions. This work examines different impacts of distribution shifts caused by either graph structure or node attributes and identifies a new type of shift, named conditional structure shift (CSS), which current GDA approaches are provably sub-optimal to deal with. A novel approach, called structural reweighting (StruRW), is proposed to address this issue and is tested on synthetic graphs, four benchmark datasets, and a new application in HEP. StruRW has shown significant performance improvement over the baselines in the settings with large graph structure shifts, and reasonable performance improvement when node attribute shift dominates.
We develop an end-to-end workflow for the training and implementation of co-designed neural networks (NNs) for efficient field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) hardware. Our approach leverages Hessian-aware quantization (HAWQ) of NNs, the Quantized Open Neural Network Exchange (QONNX) intermediate representation, and the hls4ml tool flow for transpiling NNs into FPGA and ASIC firmware. This makes efficient NN implementations in hardware accessible to nonexperts, in a single open-sourced workflow that can be deployed for real-time machine learning applications in a wide range of scientific and industrial settings. We demonstrate the workflow in a particle physics application involving trigger decisions that must operate at the 40 MHz collision rate of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Given the high collision rate, all data processing must be implemented on custom ASIC and FPGA hardware within a strict area and latency. Based on these constraints, we implement an optimized mixed-precision NN classifier for high-momentum particle jets in simulated LHC proton-proton collisions.
Efficient quantum control is necessary for practical quantum computing implementations with current technologies. Conventional algorithms for determining optimal control parameters are computationally expensive, largely excluding them from use outside of the simulation. Existing hardware solutions structured as lookup tables are imprecise and costly. By designing a machine learning model to approximate the results of traditional tools, a more efficient method can be produced. Such a model can then be synthesized into a hardware accelerator for use in quantum systems. In this study, we demonstrate a machine learning algorithm for predicting optimal pulse parameters. This algorithm is lightweight enough to fit on a low-resource FPGA and perform inference with a latency of 175 ns and pipeline interval of 5 ns with $~>~$0.99 gate fidelity. In the long term, such an accelerator could be used near quantum computing hardware where traditional computers cannot operate, enabling quantum control at a reasonable cost at low latencies without incurring large data bandwidths outside of the cryogenic environment.
Applications of machine learning (ML) are growing by the day for many unique and challenging scientific applications. However, a crucial challenge facing these applications is their need for ultra low-latency and on-detector ML capabilities. Given the slowdown in Moore's law and Dennard scaling, coupled with the rapid advances in scientific instrumentation that is resulting in growing data rates, there is a need for ultra-fast ML at the extreme edge. Fast ML at the edge is essential for reducing and filtering scientific data in real-time to accelerate science experimentation and enable more profound insights. To accelerate real-time scientific edge ML hardware and software solutions, we need well-constrained benchmark tasks with enough specifications to be generically applicable and accessible. These benchmarks can guide the design of future edge ML hardware for scientific applications capable of meeting the nanosecond and microsecond level latency requirements. To this end, we present an initial set of scientific ML benchmarks, covering a variety of ML and embedded system techniques.
We present our development experience and recent results for the MLPerf Tiny Inference Benchmark on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platforms. We use the open-source hls4ml and FINN workflows, which aim to democratize AI-hardware codesign of optimized neural networks on FPGAs. We present the design and implementation process for the keyword spotting, anomaly detection, and image classification benchmark tasks. The resulting hardware implementations are quantized, configurable, spatial dataflow architectures tailored for speed and efficiency and introduce new generic optimizations and common workflows developed as a part of this work. The full workflow is presented from quantization-aware training to FPGA implementation. The solutions are deployed on system-on-chip (Pynq-Z2) and pure FPGA (Arty A7-100T) platforms. The resulting submissions achieve latencies as low as 20 $\mu$s and energy consumption as low as 30 $\mu$J per inference. We demonstrate how emerging ML benchmarks on heterogeneous hardware platforms can catalyze collaboration and the development of new techniques and more accessible tools.
We present extensions to the Open Neural Network Exchange (ONNX) intermediate representation format to represent arbitrary-precision quantized neural networks. We first introduce support for low precision quantization in existing ONNX-based quantization formats by leveraging integer clipping, resulting in two new backward-compatible variants: the quantized operator format with clipping and quantize-clip-dequantize (QCDQ) format. We then introduce a novel higher-level ONNX format called quantized ONNX (QONNX) that introduces three new operators -- Quant, BipolarQuant, and Trunc -- in order to represent uniform quantization. By keeping the QONNX IR high-level and flexible, we enable targeting a wider variety of platforms. We also present utilities for working with QONNX, as well as examples of its usage in the FINN and hls4ml toolchains. Finally, we introduce the QONNX model zoo to share low-precision quantized neural networks.
Machine learning (ML) is becoming an increasingly important component of cutting-edge physics research, but its computational requirements present significant challenges. In this white paper, we discuss the needs of the physics community regarding ML across latency and throughput regimes, the tools and resources that offer the possibility of addressing these needs, and how these can be best utilized and accessed in the coming years.
In this community review report, we discuss applications and techniques for fast machine learning (ML) in science -- the concept of integrating power ML methods into the real-time experimental data processing loop to accelerate scientific discovery. The material for the report builds on two workshops held by the Fast ML for Science community and covers three main areas: applications for fast ML across a number of scientific domains; techniques for training and implementing performant and resource-efficient ML algorithms; and computing architectures, platforms, and technologies for deploying these algorithms. We also present overlapping challenges across the multiple scientific domains where common solutions can be found. This community report is intended to give plenty of examples and inspiration for scientific discovery through integrated and accelerated ML solutions. This is followed by a high-level overview and organization of technical advances, including an abundance of pointers to source material, which can enable these breakthroughs.