The recent breakthroughs in natural language processing for model pretraining on large quantities of data have opened the way for similar foundation models in computer vision. These models could greatly simplify the use of images in any system by producing all-purpose visual features, i.e., features that work across image distributions and tasks without finetuning. This work shows that existing pretraining methods, especially self-supervised methods, can produce such features if trained on enough curated data from diverse sources. We revisit existing approaches and combine different techniques to scale our pretraining in terms of data and model size. Most of the technical contributions aim at accelerating and stabilizing the training at scale. In terms of data, we propose an automatic pipeline to build a dedicated, diverse, and curated image dataset instead of uncurated data, as typically done in the self-supervised literature. In terms of models, we train a ViT model (Dosovitskiy et al., 2020) with 1B parameters and distill it into a series of smaller models that surpass the best available all-purpose features, OpenCLIP (Ilharco et al., 2021) on most of the benchmarks at image and pixel levels.
In this paper, we leverage low-level compiler intermediate representations (IR) to improve code translation. Traditional transpilers rely on syntactic information and handcrafted rules, which limits their applicability and produces unnatural-looking code. Applying neural machine translation (NMT) approaches to code has successfully broadened the set of programs on which one can get a natural-looking translation. However, they treat the code as sequences of text tokens, and still do not differentiate well enough between similar pieces of code which have different semantics in different languages. The consequence is low quality translation, reducing the practicality of NMT, and stressing the need for an approach significantly increasing its accuracy. Here we propose to augment code translation with IRs, specifically LLVM IR, with results on the C++, Java, Rust, and Go languages. Our method improves upon the state of the art for unsupervised code translation, increasing the number of correct translations by 11% on average, and up to 79% for the Java - Rust pair. We extend previous test sets for code translation, by adding hundreds of Go and Rust functions. Additionally, we train models with high performance on the problem of IR decompilation, generating programming source code from IR, and study using IRs as intermediary pivot for translation.
Traditional approaches for learning 3D object categories have been predominantly trained and evaluated on synthetic datasets due to the unavailability of real 3D-annotated category-centric data. Our main goal is to facilitate advances in this field by collecting real-world data in a magnitude similar to the existing synthetic counterparts. The principal contribution of this work is thus a large-scale dataset, called Common Objects in 3D, with real multi-view images of object categories annotated with camera poses and ground truth 3D point clouds. The dataset contains a total of 1.5 million frames from nearly 19,000 videos capturing objects from 50 MS-COCO categories and, as such, it is significantly larger than alternatives both in terms of the number of categories and objects. We exploit this new dataset to conduct one of the first large-scale "in-the-wild" evaluations of several new-view-synthesis and category-centric 3D reconstruction methods. Finally, we contribute NerFormer - a novel neural rendering method that leverages the powerful Transformer to reconstruct an object given a small number of its views. The CO3D dataset is available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/co3d .
* International Conference on Computer Vision, 2021
We tackle the problem of monocular 3D reconstruction of articulated objects like humans and animals. We contribute DensePose 3D, a method that can learn such reconstructions in a weakly supervised fashion from 2D image annotations only. This is in stark contrast with previous deformable reconstruction methods that use parametric models such as SMPL pre-trained on a large dataset of 3D object scans. Because it does not require 3D scans, DensePose 3D can be used for learning a wide range of articulated categories such as different animal species. The method learns, in an end-to-end fashion, a soft partition of a given category-specific 3D template mesh into rigid parts together with a monocular reconstruction network that predicts the part motions such that they reproject correctly onto 2D DensePose-like surface annotations of the object. The decomposition of the object into parts is regularized by expressing part assignments as a combination of the smooth eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. We show significant improvements compared to state-of-the-art non-rigid structure-from-motion baselines on both synthetic and real data on categories of humans and animals.
We tackle the problem of learning the geometry of multiple categories of deformable objects jointly. Recent work has shown that it is possible to learn a unified dense pose predictor for several categories of related objects. However, training such models requires to initialize inter-category correspondences by hand. This is suboptimal and the resulting models fail to maintain correct correspondences as individual categories are learned. In this paper, we show that improved correspondences can be learned automatically as a natural byproduct of learning category-specific dense pose predictors. To do this, we express correspondences between different categories and between images and categories using a unified embedding. Then, we use the latter to enforce two constraints: symmetric inter-category cycle consistency and a new asymmetric image-to-category cycle consistency. Without any manual annotations for the inter-category correspondences, we obtain state-of-the-art alignment results, outperforming dedicated methods for matching 3D shapes. Moreover, the new model is also better at the task of dense pose prediction than prior work.
We present NeuroMorph, a new neural network architecture that takes as input two 3D shapes and produces in one go, i.e. in a single feed forward pass, a smooth interpolation and point-to-point correspondences between them. The interpolation, expressed as a deformation field, changes the pose of the source shape to resemble the target, but leaves the object identity unchanged. NeuroMorph uses an elegant architecture combining graph convolutions with global feature pooling to extract local features. During training, the model is incentivized to create realistic deformations by approximating geodesics on the underlying shape space manifold. This strong geometric prior allows to train our model end-to-end and in a fully unsupervised manner without requiring any manual correspondence annotations. NeuroMorph works well for a large variety of input shapes, including non-isometric pairs from different object categories. It obtains state-of-the-art results for both shape correspondence and interpolation tasks, matching or surpassing the performance of recent unsupervised and supervised methods on multiple benchmarks.
* Published at the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern
Our goal is to learn a deep network that, given a small number of images of an object of a given category, reconstructs it in 3D. While several recent works have obtained analogous results using synthetic data or assuming the availability of 2D primitives such as keypoints, we are interested in working with challenging real data and with no manual annotations. We thus focus on learning a model from multiple views of a large collection of object instances. We contribute with a new large dataset of object centric videos suitable for training and benchmarking this class of models. We show that existing techniques leveraging meshes, voxels, or implicit surfaces, which work well for reconstructing isolated objects, fail on this challenging data. Finally, we propose a new neural network design, called warp-conditioned ray embedding (WCR), which significantly improves reconstruction while obtaining a detailed implicit representation of the object surface and texture, also compensating for the noise in the initial SfM reconstruction that bootstrapped the learning process. Our evaluation demonstrates performance improvements over several deep monocular reconstruction baselines on existing benchmarks and on our novel dataset.
To unlock video chat for hundreds of millions of people hindered by poor connectivity or unaffordable data costs, we propose to authentically reconstruct faces on the receiver's device using facial landmarks extracted at the sender's side and transmitted over the network. In this context, we discuss and evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of several deep adversarial approaches. In particular, we explore quality and bandwidth trade-offs for approaches based on static landmarks, dynamic landmarks or segmentation maps. We design a mobile-compatible architecture based on the first order animation model of Siarohin et al. In addition, we leverage SPADE blocks to refine results in important areas such as the eyes and lips. We compress the networks down to about 3MB, allowing models to run in real time on iPhone 8 (CPU). This approach enables video calling at a few kbits per second, an order of magnitude lower than currently available alternatives.
In this work, we focus on the task of learning and representing dense correspondences in deformable object categories. While this problem has been considered before, solutions so far have been rather ad-hoc for specific object types (i.e., humans), often with significant manual work involved. However, scaling the geometry understanding to all objects in nature requires more automated approaches that can also express correspondences between related, but geometrically different objects. To this end, we propose a new, learnable image-based representation of dense correspondences. Our model predicts, for each pixel in a 2D image, an embedding vector of the corresponding vertex in the object mesh, therefore establishing dense correspondences between image pixels and 3D object geometry. We demonstrate that the proposed approach performs on par or better than the state-of-the-art methods for dense pose estimation for humans, while being conceptually simpler. We also collect a new in-the-wild dataset of dense correspondences for animal classes and demonstrate that our framework scales naturally to the new deformable object categories.