Similar Case Matching (SCM) is designed to determine whether two cases are similar. The task has an essential role in the legal system, helping legal professionals to find relevant cases quickly and thus deal with them more efficiently. Existing research has focused on improving the model's performance but not on its interpretability. Therefore, this paper proposes a pipeline framework for interpretable SCM, which consists of four modules: a judicial feature sentence identification module, a case matching module, a feature sentence alignment module, and a conflict disambiguation module. Unlike existing SCM methods, our framework will identify feature sentences in a case that contain essential information, perform similar case matching based on the extracted feature sentence results, and align the feature sentences in the two cases to provide evidence for the similarity of the cases. SCM results may conflict with feature sentence alignment results, and our framework further disambiguates against this inconsistency. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our framework, and our work provides a new benchmark for interpretable SCM.
Grammatical error correction (GEC) is a challenging task of natural language processing techniques. While more attempts are being made in this approach for universal languages like English or Chinese, relatively little work has been done for low-resource languages for the lack of large annotated corpora. In low-resource languages, the current unsupervised GEC based on language model scoring performs well. However, the pre-trained language model is still to be explored in this context. This study proposes a BERT-based unsupervised GEC framework, where GEC is viewed as multi-class classification task. The framework contains three modules: data flow construction module, sentence perplexity scoring module, and error detecting and correcting module. We propose a novel scoring method for pseudo-perplexity to evaluate a sentence's probable correctness and construct a Tagalog corpus for Tagalog GEC research. It obtains competitive performance on the Tagalog corpus we construct and open-source Indonesian corpus and it demonstrates that our framework is complementary to baseline method for low-resource GEC task.
Recently, more and more research has focused on addressing bias in text classification models. However, existing research mainly focuses on the fairness of monolingual text classification models, and research on fairness for multilingual text classification is still very limited. In this paper, we focus on the task of multilingual text classification and propose a debiasing framework for multilingual text classification based on contrastive learning. Our proposed method does not rely on any external language resources and can be extended to any other languages. The model contains four modules: multilingual text representation module, language fusion module, text debiasing module, and text classification module. The multilingual text representation module uses a multilingual pre-trained language model to represent the text, the language fusion module makes the semantic spaces of different languages tend to be consistent through contrastive learning, and the text debiasing module uses contrastive learning to make the model unable to identify sensitive attributes' information. The text classification module completes the basic tasks of multilingual text classification. In addition, the existing research on the fairness of multilingual text classification is relatively simple in the evaluation mode. The evaluation method of fairness is the same as the monolingual equality difference evaluation method, that is, the evaluation is performed on a single language. We propose a multi-dimensional fairness evaluation framework for multilingual text classification, which evaluates the model's monolingual equality difference, multilingual equality difference, multilingual equality performance difference, and destructiveness of the fairness strategy. We hope that our work can provide a more general debiasing method and a more comprehensive evaluation framework for multilingual text fairness tasks.
Deep learning-based text classification models need abundant labeled data to obtain competitive performance. Unfortunately, annotating large-size corpus is time-consuming and laborious. To tackle this, multiple researches try to use data augmentation to expand the corpus size. However, data augmentation may potentially produce some noisy augmented samples. There are currently no works exploring sample selection for augmented samples in nature language processing field. In this paper, we propose a novel self-training selection framework with two selectors to select the high-quality samples from data augmentation. Specifically, we firstly use an entropy-based strategy and the model prediction to select augmented samples. Considering some samples with high quality at the above step may be wrongly filtered, we propose to recall them from two perspectives of word overlap and semantic similarity. Experimental results show the effectiveness and simplicity of our framework.
The effective application of contrastive learning technology in natural language processing tasks shows the superiority of contrastive learning in text analysis tasks. How to construct positive and negative samples correctly and reasonably is the core challenge of contrastive learning. Since it is difficult to construct contrastive objects in multi-label multi-classification tasks, there are few contrastive losses for multi-label multi-classification text classification. In this paper, we propose five contrastive losses for multi-label multi-classification tasks. They are Strict Contrastive Loss (SCL), Intra-label Contrastive Loss (ICL), Jaccard Similarity Contrastive Loss (JSCL), and Jaccard Similarity Probability Contrastive Loss (JSPCL) and Stepwise Label Contrastive Loss (SLCL). We explore the effectiveness of contrastive learning for multi-label multi-classification tasks under different strategies, and provide a set of baseline methods for contrastive learning techniques on multi-label classification tasks. We also perform an interpretability analysis of our approach to show how different contrastive learning methods play their roles. The experimental results in this paper demonstrate that our proposed contrastive losses can bring some improvement for multi-label multi-classification tasks. Our work reveal how to "appropriately" change the contrastive way of contrastive learning is the key idea to improve the adaptability of contrastive learning in multi-label multi-classification tasks.
Chinese spelling check is a task to detect and correct spelling mistakes in Chinese text. Existing research aims to enhance the text representation and use multi-source information to improve the detection and correction capabilities of models, but does not pay too much attention to improving their ability to distinguish between confusable words. Contrastive learning, whose aim is to minimize the distance in representation space between similar sample pairs, has recently become a dominant technique in natural language processing. Inspired by contrastive learning, we present a novel framework for Chinese spelling checking, which consists of three modules: language representation, spelling check and reverse contrastive learning. Specifically, we propose a reverse contrastive learning strategy, which explicitly forces the model to minimize the agreement between the similar examples, namely, the phonetically and visually confusable characters. Experimental results show that our framework is model-agnostic and could be combined with existing Chinese spelling check models to yield state-of-the-art performance.
Chinese features prominently in the Chinese communities located in the nations of Malay Archipelago. In these countries, Chinese has undergone the process of adjustment to the local languages and cultures, which leads to the occurrence of a Chinese variant in each country. In this paper, we conducted a quantitative analysis on Chinese news texts collected from five Malay Archipelago nations, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and Brunei, trying to figure out their differences with the texts written in modern standard Chinese from a lexical and syntactic perspective. The statistical results show that the Chinese variants used in these five nations are quite different, diverging from their modern Chinese mainland counterpart. Meanwhile, we managed to extract and classify several featured Chinese words used in each nation. All these discrepancies reflect how Chinese evolves overseas, and demonstrate the profound impact rom local societies and cultures on the development of Chinese.
As a fundamental task in natural language processing, Chinese Grammatical Error Correction (CGEC) has gradually received widespread attention and become a research hotspot. However, one obvious deficiency for the existing CGEC evaluation system is that the evaluation values are significantly influenced by the Chinese word segmentation results or different language models. The evaluation values of the same error correction model can vary considerably under different word segmentation systems or different language models. However, it is expected that these metrics should be independent of the word segmentation results and language models, as they may lead to a lack of uniqueness and comparability in the evaluation of different methods. To this end, we propose three novel evaluation metrics for CGEC in two dimensions: reference-based and reference-less. In terms of the reference-based metric, we introduce sentence-level accuracy and char-level BLEU to evaluate the corrected sentences. Besides, in terms of the reference-less metric, we adopt char-level meaning preservation to measure the semantic preservation degree of the corrected sentences. We deeply evaluate and analyze the reasonableness and validity of the three proposed metrics, and we expect them to become a new standard for CGEC.
The Yunshan Cup 2020 track focused on creating a framework for evaluating different methods of part-of-speech (POS). There were two tasks for this track: (1) POS tagging for the Indonesian language, and (2) POS tagging for the Lao tagging. The Indonesian dataset is comprised of 10000 sentences from Indonesian news within 29 tags. And the Lao dataset consists of 8000 sentences within 27 tags. 25 teams registered for the task. The methods of participants ranged from feature-based to neural networks using either classical machine learning techniques or ensemble methods. The best performing results achieve an accuracy of 95.82% for Indonesian and 93.03%, showing that neural sequence labeling models significantly outperform classic feature-based methods and rule-based methods.
Cross-lingual Named Entity Recognition (NER) has recently become a research hotspot because it can alleviate the data-hungry problem for low-resource languages. However, few researches have focused on the scenario where the source-language labeled data is also limited in some specific domains. A common approach for this scenario is to generate more training data through translation or generation-based data augmentation method. Unfortunately, we find that simply combining source-language data and the corresponding translation cannot fully exploit the translated data and the improvements obtained are somewhat limited. In this paper, we describe our novel dual-contrastive framework ConCNER for cross-lingual NER under the scenario of limited source-language labeled data. Specifically, based on the source-language samples and their translations, we design two contrastive objectives for cross-language NER at different grammatical levels, namely Translation Contrastive Learning (TCL) to close sentence representations between translated sentence pairs and Label Contrastive Learning (LCL) to close token representations within the same labels. Furthermore, we utilize knowledge distillation method where the NER model trained above is used as the teacher to train a student model on unlabeled target-language data to better fit the target language. We conduct extensive experiments on a wide variety of target languages, and the results demonstrate that ConCNER tends to outperform multiple baseline methods. For reproducibility, our code for this paper is available at https://github.com/GKLMIP/ConCNER.