Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Abstract:Phase-only compressed sensing (PO-CS) is concerned with the recovery of structured signals from the phases of complex measurements. Recent results show that structured signals in the standard sphere $\mathbb{S}^{n-1}$ can be exactly recovered from complex Gaussian phases, by recasting PO-CS as linear compressed sensing and then applying existing solvers such as basis pursuit. Known guarantees are either non-uniform or do not tolerate model error. We show that this linearization approach is more powerful than the prior results indicate. First, it achieves uniform instance optimality: Under complex Gaussian matrix with a near-optimal number of rows, this approach uniformly recovers all signals in $\mathbb{S}^{n-1}$ with errors proportional to the model errors of the signals. Specifically, for sparse recovery there exists an efficient estimator $\mathbf{x}^\sharp$ and some universal constant $C$ such that $\|\mathbf{x}^\sharp-\mathbf{x}\|_2\le \frac{C\sigma_s(\mathbf{x})_1}{\sqrt{s}}~(\forall\mathbf{x}\in\mathbb{S}^{n-1})$, where $\sigma_s(\mathbf{x})_1=\min_{\mathbf{u}\in\Sigma^n_s}\|\mathbf{u}-\mathbf{x}\|_1$ is the model error under $\ell_1$-norm. Second, the instance optimality is robust to small dense disturbances and sparse corruptions that arise before or after capturing the phases. As an extension, we also propose to recast sparsely corrupted PO-CS as a linear corrupted sensing problem and show that this achieves perfect reconstruction of the signals. Our results resemble the instance optimal guarantees in linear compressed sensing and, to our knowledge, are the first results of this kind for a non-linear sensing scenario.

Via

Abstract:Reduced biquaternion (RB), as a four-dimensional algebra highly suitable for representing color pixels, has recently garnered significant attention from numerous scholars. In this paper, for color image processing problems, we introduce a concept of the non-negative RB matrix and then use the multiplication properties of RB to propose a non-negative RB matrix factorization (NRBMF) model. The NRBMF model is introduced to address the challenge of reasonably establishing a non-negative quaternion matrix factorization model, which is primarily hindered by the multiplication properties of traditional quaternions. Furthermore, this paper transforms the problem of solving the NRBMF model into an RB alternating non-negative least squares (RB-ANNLS) problem. Then, by introducing a method to compute the gradient of the real function with RB matrix variables, we solve the RB-ANNLS optimization problem using the RB projected gradient algorithm and conduct a convergence analysis of the algorithm. Finally, we validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed NRBMF model in color face recognition.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Data valuation has garnered increasing attention in recent years, given the critical role of high-quality data in various applications, particularly in machine learning tasks. There are diverse technical avenues to quantify the value of data within a corpus. While Shapley value-based methods are among the most widely used techniques in the literature due to their solid theoretical foundation, the accurate calculation of Shapley values is often intractable, leading to the proposal of numerous approximated calculation methods. Despite significant progress, nearly all existing methods overlook the utilization of distribution information of values within a data corpus. In this paper, we demonstrate that both global and local statistical information of value distributions hold significant potential for data valuation within the context of machine learning. Firstly, we explore the characteristics of both global and local value distributions across several simulated and real data corpora. Useful observations and clues are obtained. Secondly, we propose a new data valuation method that estimates Shapley values by incorporating the explored distribution characteristics into an existing method, AME. Thirdly, we present a new path to address the dynamic data valuation problem by formulating an optimization problem that integrates information of both global and local value distributions. Extensive experiments are conducted on Shapley value estimation, value-based data removal/adding, mislabeled data detection, and incremental/decremental data valuation. The results showcase the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed methodologies, affirming the significant potential of global and local value distributions in data valuation.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:The cross-channel deblurring problem in color image processing is difficult to solve due to the complex coupling and structural blurring of color pixels. Until now, there are few efficient algorithms that can reduce color infection in deblurring process. To solve this challenging problem, we present a novel cross-space total variation (CSTV) regularization model for color image deblurring by introducing a quaternion blur operator and a cross-color space regularization functional. The existence and uniqueness of the solution is proved and a new L-curve method is proposed to find a sweet balance of regularization functionals on different color spaces. The Euler-Lagrange equation is derived to show that CSTV has taken into account the coupling of all color channels and the local smoothing within each color channel. A quaternion operator splitting method is firstly proposed to enhance the ability of color infection reduction of the CSTV regularization model. This strategy also applies to the well-known color deblurring models. Numerical experiments on color image databases illustrate the efficiency and manoeuvrability of the new model and algorithms. The color images restored by them successfully maintain the color and spatial information and are of higher quality in terms of PSNR, SSIM, MSE and CIEde2000 than the restorations of the-state-of-the-art methods.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Multispectral images (MSI) contain light information in different wavelengths of objects, which convey spectral-spatial information and help improve the performance of various image processing tasks. Numerous techniques have been created to extend the application of total variation regularization in restoring multispectral images, for example, based on channel coupling and adaptive total variation regularization. The primary contribution of this paper is to propose and develop a new multispectral total variation regularization in a generalized opponent transformation domain instead of the original multispectral image domain. Here opponent transformations for multispectral images are generalized from a well-known opponent transformation for color images. We will explore the properties of generalized opponent transformation total variation (GOTTV) regularization and the corresponding optimization formula for multispectral image restoration. To evaluate the effectiveness of the new GOTTV method, we provide numerical examples that showcase its superior performance compared to existing multispectral image total variation methods, using criteria such as MPSNR and MSSIM.

Via

Authors:Yihang Gao, Chuanyang Zheng, Enze Xie, Han Shi, Tianyang Hu, Yu Li, Michael K. Ng, Zhenguo Li, Zhaoqiang Liu

Abstract:Besides natural language processing, transformers exhibit extraordinary performance in solving broader applications, including scientific computing and computer vision. Previous works try to explain this from the expressive power and capability perspectives that standard transformers are capable of performing some algorithms. To empower transformers with algorithmic capabilities and motivated by the recently proposed looped transformer (Yang et al., 2024; Giannou et al., 2023), we design a novel transformer block, dubbed Algorithm Transformer (abbreviated as AlgoFormer). Compared with the standard transformer and vanilla looped transformer, the proposed AlgoFormer can achieve significantly higher expressiveness in algorithm representation when using the same number of parameters. In particular, inspired by the structure of human-designed learning algorithms, our transformer block consists of a pre-transformer that is responsible for task pre-processing, a looped transformer for iterative optimization algorithms, and a post-transformer for producing the desired results after post-processing. We provide theoretical evidence of the expressive power of the AlgoFormer in solving some challenging problems, mirroring human-designed algorithms. Furthermore, some theoretical and empirical results are presented to show that the designed transformer has the potential to be smarter than human-designed algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the empirical superiority of the proposed transformer in that it outperforms the standard transformer and vanilla looped transformer in some challenging tasks.

Via

Abstract:This paper studies quantized corrupted sensing where the measurements are contaminated by unknown corruption and then quantized by a dithered uniform quantizer. We establish uniform guarantees for Lasso that ensure the accurate recovery of all signals and corruptions using a single draw of the sub-Gaussian sensing matrix and uniform dither. For signal and corruption with structured priors (e.g., sparsity, low-rankness), our uniform error rate for constrained Lasso typically coincides with the non-uniform one [Sun, Cui and Liu, 2022] up to logarithmic factors. By contrast, our uniform error rate for unconstrained Lasso exhibits worse dependence on the structured parameters due to regularization parameters larger than the ones for non-uniform recovery. For signal and corruption living in the ranges of some Lipschitz continuous generative models (referred to as generative priors), we achieve uniform recovery via constrained Lasso with a measurement number proportional to the latent dimensions of the generative models. Our treatments to the two kinds of priors are (nearly) unified and share the common key ingredients of (global) quantized product embedding (QPE) property, which states that the dithered uniform quantization (universally) preserves inner product. As a by-product, our QPE result refines the one in [Xu and Jacques, 2020] under sub-Gaussian random matrix, and in this specific instance we are able to sharpen the uniform error decaying rate (for the projected-back projection estimator with signals in some convex symmetric set) presented therein from $O(m^{-1/16})$ to $O(m^{-1/8})$.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:The problem of recovering a signal $\boldsymbol{x} \in \mathbb{R}^n$ from a quadratic system $\{y_i=\boldsymbol{x}^\top\boldsymbol{A}_i\boldsymbol{x},\ i=1,\ldots,m\}$ with full-rank matrices $\boldsymbol{A}_i$ frequently arises in applications such as unassigned distance geometry and sub-wavelength imaging. With i.i.d. standard Gaussian matrices $\boldsymbol{A}_i$, this paper addresses the high-dimensional case where $m\ll n$ by incorporating prior knowledge of $\boldsymbol{x}$. First, we consider a $k$-sparse $\boldsymbol{x}$ and introduce the thresholded Wirtinger flow (TWF) algorithm that does not require the sparsity level $k$. TWF comprises two steps: the spectral initialization that identifies a point sufficiently close to $\boldsymbol{x}$ (up to a sign flip) when $m=O(k^2\log n)$, and the thresholded gradient descent (with a good initialization) that produces a sequence linearly converging to $\boldsymbol{x}$ with $m=O(k\log n)$ measurements. Second, we explore the generative prior, assuming that $\boldsymbol{x}$ lies in the range of an $L$-Lipschitz continuous generative model with $k$-dimensional inputs in an $\ell_2$-ball of radius $r$. We develop the projected gradient descent (PGD) algorithm that also comprises two steps: the projected power method that provides an initial vector with $O\big(\sqrt{\frac{k \log L}{m}}\big)$ $\ell_2$-error given $m=O(k\log(Lnr))$ measurements, and the projected gradient descent that refines the $\ell_2$-error to $O(\delta)$ at a geometric rate when $m=O(k\log\frac{Lrn}{\delta^2})$. Experimental results corroborate our theoretical findings and show that: (i) our approach for the sparse case notably outperforms the existing provable algorithm sparse power factorization; (ii) leveraging the generative prior allows for precise image recovery in the MNIST dataset from a small number of quadratic measurements.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:A covariance matrix estimator using two bits per entry was recently developed by Dirksen, Maly and Rauhut [Annals of Statistics, 50(6), pp. 3538-3562]. The estimator achieves near minimax rate for general sub-Gaussian distributions, but also suffers from two downsides: theoretically, there is an essential gap on operator norm error between their estimator and sample covariance when the diagonal of the covariance matrix is dominated by only a few entries; practically, its performance heavily relies on the dithering scale, which needs to be tuned according to some unknown parameters. In this work, we propose a new 2-bit covariance matrix estimator that simultaneously addresses both issues. Unlike the sign quantizer associated with uniform dither in Dirksen et al., we adopt a triangular dither prior to a 2-bit quantizer inspired by the multi-bit uniform quantizer. By employing dithering scales varying across entries, our estimator enjoys an improved operator norm error rate that depends on the effective rank of the underlying covariance matrix rather than the ambient dimension, thus closing the theoretical gap. Moreover, our proposed method eliminates the need of any tuning parameter, as the dithering scales are entirely determined by the data. Experimental results under Gaussian samples are provided to showcase the impressive numerical performance of our estimator. Remarkably, by halving the dithering scales, our estimator oftentimes achieves operator norm errors less than twice of the errors of sample covariance.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Low-rank multivariate regression (LRMR) is an important statistical learning model that combines highly correlated tasks as a multiresponse regression problem with low-rank priori on the coefficient matrix. In this paper, we study quantized LRMR, a practical setting where the responses and/or the covariates are discretized to finite precision. We focus on the estimation of the underlying coefficient matrix. To make consistent estimator that could achieve arbitrarily small error possible, we employ uniform quantization with random dithering, i.e., we add appropriate random noise to the data before quantization. Specifically, uniform dither and triangular dither are used for responses and covariates, respectively. Based on the quantized data, we propose the constrained Lasso and regularized Lasso estimators, and derive the non-asymptotic error bounds. With the aid of dithering, the estimators achieve minimax optimal rate, while quantization only slightly worsens the multiplicative factor in the error rate. Moreover, we extend our results to a low-rank regression model with matrix responses. We corroborate and demonstrate our theoretical results via simulations on synthetic data or image restoration.

Via