We present Emu Video, a text-to-video generation model that factorizes the generation into two steps: first generating an image conditioned on the text, and then generating a video conditioned on the text and the generated image. We identify critical design decisions--adjusted noise schedules for diffusion, and multi-stage training--that enable us to directly generate high quality and high resolution videos, without requiring a deep cascade of models as in prior work. In human evaluations, our generated videos are strongly preferred in quality compared to all prior work--81% vs. Google's Imagen Video, 90% vs. Nvidia's PYOCO, and 96% vs. Meta's Make-A-Video. Our model outperforms commercial solutions such as RunwayML's Gen2 and Pika Labs. Finally, our factorizing approach naturally lends itself to animating images based on a user's text prompt, where our generations are preferred 96% over prior work.
We present ImageBind, an approach to learn a joint embedding across six different modalities - images, text, audio, depth, thermal, and IMU data. We show that all combinations of paired data are not necessary to train such a joint embedding, and only image-paired data is sufficient to bind the modalities together. ImageBind can leverage recent large scale vision-language models, and extends their zero-shot capabilities to new modalities just by using their natural pairing with images. It enables novel emergent applications 'out-of-the-box' including cross-modal retrieval, composing modalities with arithmetic, cross-modal detection and generation. The emergent capabilities improve with the strength of the image encoder and we set a new state-of-the-art on emergent zero-shot recognition tasks across modalities, outperforming specialist supervised models. Finally, we show strong few-shot recognition results outperforming prior work, and that ImageBind serves as a new way to evaluate vision models for visual and non-visual tasks.
This paper revisits the standard pretrain-then-finetune paradigm used in computer vision for visual recognition tasks. Typically, state-of-the-art foundation models are pretrained using large scale (weakly) supervised datasets with billions of images. We introduce an additional pre-pretraining stage that is simple and uses the self-supervised MAE technique to initialize the model. While MAE has only been shown to scale with the size of models, we find that it scales with the size of the training dataset as well. Thus, our MAE-based pre-pretraining scales with both model and data size making it applicable for training foundation models. Pre-pretraining consistently improves both the model convergence and the downstream transfer performance across a range of model scales (millions to billions of parameters), and dataset sizes (millions to billions of images). We measure the effectiveness of pre-pretraining on 10 different visual recognition tasks spanning image classification, video recognition, object detection, low-shot classification and zero-shot recognition. Our largest model achieves new state-of-the-art results on iNaturalist-18 (91.3%), 1-shot ImageNet-1k (62.1%), and zero-shot transfer on Food-101 (96.0%). Our study reveals that model initialization plays a significant role, even for web-scale pretraining with billions of images.
Transformer-based architectures have become competitive across a variety of visual domains, most notably images and videos. While prior work has studied these modalities in isolation, having a common architecture suggests that one can train a single unified model for multiple visual modalities. Prior attempts at unified modeling typically use architectures tailored for vision tasks, or obtain worse performance compared to single modality models. In this work, we show that masked autoencoding can be used to train a simple Vision Transformer on images and videos, without requiring any labeled data. This single model learns visual representations that are comparable to or better than single-modality representations on both image and video benchmarks, while using a much simpler architecture. In particular, our single pretrained model can be finetuned to achieve 86.5% on ImageNet and 75.3% on the challenging Something Something-v2 video benchmark. Furthermore, this model can be learned by dropping 90% of the image and 95% of the video patches, enabling extremely fast training.
Discriminative self-supervised learning allows training models on any random group of internet images, and possibly recover salient information that helps differentiate between the images. Applied to ImageNet, this leads to object centric features that perform on par with supervised features on most object-centric downstream tasks. In this work, we question if using this ability, we can learn any salient and more representative information present in diverse unbounded set of images from across the globe. To do so, we train models on billions of random images without any data pre-processing or prior assumptions about what we want the model to learn. We scale our model size to dense 10 billion parameters to avoid underfitting on a large data size. We extensively study and validate our model performance on over 50 benchmarks including fairness, robustness to distribution shift, geographical diversity, fine grained recognition, image copy detection and many image classification datasets. The resulting model, not only captures well semantic information, it also captures information about artistic style and learns salient information such as geolocations and multilingual word embeddings based on visual content only. More importantly, we discover that such model is more robust, more fair, less harmful and less biased than supervised models or models trained on object centric datasets such as ImageNet.
Prior work has studied different visual modalities in isolation and developed separate architectures for recognition of images, videos, and 3D data. Instead, in this paper, we propose a single model which excels at classifying images, videos, and single-view 3D data using exactly the same model parameters. Our 'Omnivore' model leverages the flexibility of transformer-based architectures and is trained jointly on classification tasks from different modalities. Omnivore is simple to train, uses off-the-shelf standard datasets, and performs at-par or better than modality-specific models of the same size. A single Omnivore model obtains 86.0% on ImageNet, 84.1% on Kinetics, and 67.1% on SUN RGB-D. After finetuning, our models outperform prior work on a variety of vision tasks and generalize across modalities. Omnivore's shared visual representation naturally enables cross-modal recognition without access to correspondences between modalities. We hope our results motivate researchers to model visual modalities together.
Model pre-training is a cornerstone of modern visual recognition systems. Although fully supervised pre-training on datasets like ImageNet is still the de-facto standard, recent studies suggest that large-scale weakly supervised pre-training can outperform fully supervised approaches. This paper revisits weakly-supervised pre-training of models using hashtag supervision with modern versions of residual networks and the largest-ever dataset of images and corresponding hashtags. We study the performance of the resulting models in various transfer-learning settings including zero-shot transfer. We also compare our models with those obtained via large-scale self-supervised learning. We find our weakly-supervised models to be very competitive across all settings, and find they substantially outperform their self-supervised counterparts. We also include an investigation into whether our models learned potentially troubling associations or stereotypes. Overall, our results provide a compelling argument for the use of weakly supervised learning in the development of visual recognition systems. Our models, Supervised Weakly through hashtAGs (SWAG), are available publicly.
Vision transformer (ViT) models exhibit substandard optimizability. In particular, they are sensitive to the choice of optimizer (AdamW vs. SGD), optimizer hyperparameters, and training schedule length. In comparison, modern convolutional neural networks are far easier to optimize. Why is this the case? In this work, we conjecture that the issue lies with the patchify stem of ViT models, which is implemented by a stride-p pxp convolution (p=16 by default) applied to the input image. This large-kernel plus large-stride convolution runs counter to typical design choices of convolutional layers in neural networks. To test whether this atypical design choice causes an issue, we analyze the optimization behavior of ViT models with their original patchify stem versus a simple counterpart where we replace the ViT stem by a small number of stacked stride-two 3x3 convolutions. While the vast majority of computation in the two ViT designs is identical, we find that this small change in early visual processing results in markedly different training behavior in terms of the sensitivity to optimization settings as well as the final model accuracy. Using a convolutional stem in ViT dramatically increases optimization stability and also improves peak performance (by ~1-2% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet-1k), while maintaining flops and runtime. The improvement can be observed across the wide spectrum of model complexities (from 1G to 36G flops) and dataset scales (from ImageNet-1k to ImageNet-21k). These findings lead us to recommend using a standard, lightweight convolutional stem for ViT models as a more robust architectural choice compared to the original ViT model design.
Multi-modal reasoning systems rely on a pre-trained object detector to extract regions of interest from the image. However, this crucial module is typically used as a black box, trained independently of the downstream task and on a fixed vocabulary of objects and attributes. This makes it challenging for such systems to capture the long tail of visual concepts expressed in free form text. In this paper we propose MDETR, an end-to-end modulated detector that detects objects in an image conditioned on a raw text query, like a caption or a question. We use a transformer-based architecture to reason jointly over text and image by fusing the two modalities at an early stage of the model. We pre-train the network on 1.3M text-image pairs, mined from pre-existing multi-modal datasets having explicit alignment between phrases in text and objects in the image. We then fine-tune on several downstream tasks such as phrase grounding, referring expression comprehension and segmentation, achieving state-of-the-art results on popular benchmarks. We also investigate the utility of our model as an object detector on a given label set when fine-tuned in a few-shot setting. We show that our pre-training approach provides a way to handle the long tail of object categories which have very few labelled instances. Our approach can be easily extended for visual question answering, achieving competitive performance on GQA and CLEVR. The code and models are available at https://github.com/ashkamath/mdetr.