This paper addresses the problem of Neural Network (NN) based adaptive stability certification in a dynamical system. The state-of-the-art methods, such as Neural Lyapunov Functions (NLFs), use NN-based formulations to assess the stability of a non-linear dynamical system and compute a Region of Attraction (ROA) in the state space. However, under parametric uncertainty, if the values of system parameters vary over time, the NLF methods fail to adapt to such changes and may lead to conservative stability assessment performance. We circumvent this issue by integrating Model Agnostic Meta-learning (MAML) with NLFs and propose meta-NLFs. In this process, we train a meta-function that adapts to any parametric shifts and updates into an NLF for the system with new test-time parameter values. We demonstrate the stability assessment performance of meta-NLFs on some standard benchmark autonomous dynamical systems.
* This article has been accepted for AAAI-24 (The 38th Annual AAAI
Conference on Artificial Intelligence)
With the increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs) integration, there is a significant need to model and analyze hosting capacity (HC) for future electric distribution grids. Hosting capacity analysis (HCA) examines the amount of DERs that can be safely integrated into the grid and is a challenging task in full generality because there are many possible integration of DERs in foresight. That is, there are numerous extreme points between feasible and infeasible sets. Moreover, HC depends on multiple factors such as (a) adoption patterns of DERs that depend on socio-economic behaviors and (b) how DERs are controlled and managed. These two factors are intrinsic to the problem space because not all integration of DERs may be centrally planned, and could largely change our understanding about HC. This paper addresses the research gap by capturing the two factors (a) and (b) in HCA and by identifying a few most insightful HC scenarios at the cost of domain knowledge. We propose a data-driven HCA framework and introduce active learning in HCA to effectively explore scenarios. Active learning in HCA and characteristics of HC with respect to the two factors (a) and (b) are illustrated in a 3-bus example. Next, detailed large-scale studies are proposed to understand the significance of (a) and (b). Our findings suggest that HC and its interpretations significantly change subject to the two factors (a) and (b).
The transition towards carbon-neutral electricity is one of the biggest game changers in addressing climate change since it addresses the dual challenges of removing carbon emissions from the two largest sectors of emitters: electricity and transportation. The transition to a carbon-neutral electric grid poses significant challenges to conventional paradigms of modern grid planning and operation. Much of the challenge arises from the scale of the decision making and the uncertainty associated with the energy supply and demand. Artificial Intelligence (AI) could potentially have a transformative impact on accelerating the speed and scale of carbon-neutral transition, as many decision making processes in the power grid can be cast as classic, though challenging, machine learning tasks. We point out that to amplify AI's impact on carbon-neutral transition of the electric energy systems, the AI algorithms originally developed for other applications should be tailored in three layers of technology, markets, and policy.
Robotic ultrasound (US) imaging aims at overcoming some of the limitations of free-hand US examinations, e.g. difficulty in guaranteeing intra- and inter-operator repeatability. However, due to anatomical and physiological variations between patients and relative movement of anatomical substructures, it is challenging to robustly generate optimal trajectories to examine the anatomies of interest, in particular, when they comprise articulated joints. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a vision-based approach allowing autonomous robotic US limb scanning. To this end, an atlas MRI template of a human arm with annotated vascular structures is used to generate trajectories and register and project them onto patients' skin surfaces for robotic US acquisition. To effectively segment and accurately reconstruct the targeted 3D vessel, we make use of spatial continuity in consecutive US frames by incorporating channel attention modules into a U-Net-type neural network. The automatic trajectory generation method is evaluated on six volunteers with various articulated joint angles. In all cases, the system can successfully acquire the planned vascular structure on volunteers' limbs. For one volunteer the MRI scan was also available, which allows the evaluation of the average radius of the scanned artery from US images, resulting in a radius estimation ($1.2\pm0.05~mm$) comparable to the MRI ground truth ($1.2\pm0.04~mm$).
This paper considers the problem of characterizing the stability region of a large-scale networked system comprised of dissipative nonlinear subsystems, in a distributed and computationally tractable way. One standard approach to estimate the stability region of a general nonlinear system is to first find a Lyapunov function for the system and characterize its region of attraction as the stability region. However, classical approaches, such as sum-of-squares methods and quadratic approximation, for finding a Lyapunov function either do not scale to large systems or give very conservative estimates for the stability region. In this context, we propose a new distributed learning based approach by exploiting the dissipativity structure of the subsystems. Our approach has two parts: the first part is a distributed approach to learn the storage functions (similar to the Lyapunov functions) for all the subsystems, and the second part is a distributed optimization approach to find the Lyapunov function for the networked system using the learned storage functions of the subsystems. We demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed approach through extensive case studies in microgrid networks.
This article presents a use-inspired perspective of the opportunities and challenges in a massively digitized power grid. It argues that the intricate interplay of data availability, computing capability, and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm development are the three key factors driving the adoption of digitized solutions in the power grid. The impact of these three factors on critical functions of power system operation and planning practices are reviewed and illustrated with industrial practice case studies. Open challenges and research opportunities for data, computing, and AI algorithms are articulated within the context of the power industry's tremendous decarbonization efforts.
This paper presents OpenGridGym, an open-source Python-based package that allows for seamless integration of distribution market simulation with state-of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) decision-making algorithms. We present the architecture and design choice for the proposed framework, elaborate on how users interact with OpenGridGym, and highlight its value by providing multiple cases to demonstrate its use. Four modules are used in any simulation: (1) the physical grid, (2) market mechanisms, (3) a set of trainable agents which interact with the former two modules, and (4) environment module that connects and coordinates the above three. We provide templates for each of those four, but they are easily interchangeable with custom alternatives. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the capability and potential of this toolkit in helping researchers address key design and operational questions in distribution electricity markets.
The electric grid is a key enabling infrastructure for the ambitious transition towards carbon neutrality as we grapple with climate change. With deepening penetration of renewable energy resources and electrified transportation, the reliable and secure operation of the electric grid becomes increasingly challenging. In this paper, we present PSML, a first-of-its-kind open-access multi-scale time-series dataset, to aid in the development of data-driven machine learning (ML) based approaches towards reliable operation of future electric grids. The dataset is generated through a novel transmission + distribution (T+D) co-simulation designed to capture the increasingly important interactions and uncertainties of the grid dynamics, containing electric load, renewable generation, weather, voltage and current measurements at multiple spatio-temporal scales. Using PSML, we provide state-of-the-art ML baselines on three challenging use cases of critical importance to achieve: (i) early detection, accurate classification and localization of dynamic disturbance events; (ii) robust hierarchical forecasting of load and renewable energy with the presence of uncertainties and extreme events; and (iii) realistic synthetic generation of physical-law-constrained measurement time series. We envision that this dataset will enable advances for ML in dynamic systems, while simultaneously allowing ML researchers to contribute towards carbon-neutral electricity and mobility.
Visual localization is a crucial problem in mobile robotics and autonomous driving. One solution is to retrieve images with known pose from a database for the localization of query images. However, in environments with drastically varying conditions (e.g. illumination changes, seasons, occlusion, dynamic objects), retrieval-based localization is severely hampered and becomes a challenging problem. In this paper, a novel domain-invariant feature learning method (DIFL) is proposed based on ComboGAN, a multi-domain image translation network architecture. By introducing a feature consistency loss (FCL) between the encoded features of the original image and translated image in another domain, we are able to train the encoders to generate domain-invariant features in a self-supervised manner. To retrieve a target image from the database, the query image is first encoded using the encoder belonging to the query domain to obtain a domain-invariant feature vector. We then preform retrieval by selecting the database image with the most similar domain-invariant feature vector. We validate the proposed approach on the CMU-Seasons dataset, where we outperform state-of-the-art learning-based descriptors in retrieval-based localization for high and medium precision scenarios.
* Accepted by 2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent
Robots and Systems (IROS 2019)
This paper concerns with the production of synthetic phasor measurement unit (PMU) data for research and education purposes. Due to the confidentiality of real PMU data and no public access to the real power systems infrastructure information, the lack of credible realistic data becomes a growing concern. Instead of constructing synthetic power grids and then producing synthetic PMU measurement data by time simulations, we propose a model-free approach to directly generate synthetic PMU data. we train the generative adversarial network (GAN) with real PMU data, which can be used to generate synthetic PMU data capturing the system dynamic behaviors. To validate the sequential generation by GAN to mimic PMU data, we theoretically analyze GAN's capacity of learning system dynamics. Further by evaluating the synthetic PMU data by a proposed quantitative method, we verify GAN's potential to synthesize realistic samples and meanwhile realize that GAN model in this paper still has room to improve. Moreover it is the first time that such generative model is applied to synthesize PMU data.