Foundation models like the Segment Anything Model (SAM) have demonstrated promise in generic object segmentation. However, directly applying SAM to surgical instrument segmentation presents key challenges. First, SAM relies on per-frame point-or-box prompts which complicate surgeon-computer interaction. Also, SAM yields suboptimal performance on segmenting surgical instruments, owing to insufficient surgical data in its pre-training as well as the complex structure and fine-grained details of various surgical instruments. To address these challenges, in this paper, we investigate text promptable surgical instrument segmentation and propose SP-SAM (SurgicalPart-SAM), a novel efficient-tuning approach that integrates surgical instrument structure knowledge with the generic segmentation knowledge of SAM. Specifically, we achieve this by proposing (1) collaborative prompts in the text form "[part name] of [instrument category name]" that decompose instruments into fine-grained parts; (2) a Cross-Modal Prompt Encoder that encodes text prompts jointly with visual embeddings into discriminative part-level representations; and (3) a Part-to-Whole Selective Fusion and a Hierarchical Decoding strategy that selectively assemble the part-level representations into a whole for accurate instrument segmentation. Built upon them, SP-SAM acquires a better capability to comprehend surgical instrument structures and distinguish between various categories. Extensive experiments on both the EndoVis2018 and EndoVis2017 datasets demonstrate SP-SAM's state-of-the-art performance with minimal tunable parameters. Code is at https://github.com/wenxi-yue/SurgicalPart-SAM.
A 360-degree (omni-directional) image provides an all-encompassing spherical view of a scene. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in synthesising 360-degree images from conventional narrow field of view (NFoV) images captured by digital cameras and smartphones, for providing immersive experiences in various scenarios such as virtual reality. Yet, existing methods typically fall short in synthesizing intricate visual details or ensure the generated images align consistently with user-provided prompts. In this study, autoregressive omni-aware generative network (AOG-Net) is proposed for 360-degree image generation by out-painting an incomplete 360-degree image progressively with NFoV and text guidances joinly or individually. This autoregressive scheme not only allows for deriving finer-grained and text-consistent patterns by dynamically generating and adjusting the process but also offers users greater flexibility to edit their conditions throughout the generation process. A global-local conditioning mechanism is devised to comprehensively formulate the outpainting guidance in each autoregressive step. Text guidances, omni-visual cues, NFoV inputs and omni-geometry are encoded and further formulated with cross-attention based transformers into a global stream and a local stream into a conditioned generative backbone model. As AOG-Net is compatible to leverage large-scale models for the conditional encoder and the generative prior, it enables the generation to use extensive open-vocabulary text guidances. Comprehensive experiments on two commonly used 360-degree image datasets for both indoor and outdoor settings demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance of our proposed method. Our code will be made publicly available.
Sketch-based terrain generation seeks to create realistic landscapes for virtual environments in various applications such as computer games, animation and virtual reality. Recently, deep learning based terrain generation has emerged, notably the ones based on generative adversarial networks (GAN). However, these methods often struggle to fulfill the requirements of flexible user control and maintain generative diversity for realistic terrain. Therefore, we propose a novel diffusion-based method, namely terrain diffusion network (TDN), which actively incorporates user guidance for enhanced controllability, taking into account terrain features like rivers, ridges, basins, and peaks. Instead of adhering to a conventional monolithic denoising process, which often compromises the fidelity of terrain details or the alignment with user control, a multi-level denoising scheme is proposed to generate more realistic terrains by taking into account fine-grained details, particularly those related to climatic patterns influenced by erosion and tectonic activities. Specifically, three terrain synthesisers are designed for structural, intermediate, and fine-grained level denoising purposes, which allow each synthesiser concentrate on a distinct terrain aspect. Moreover, to maximise the efficiency of our TDN, we further introduce terrain and sketch latent spaces for the synthesizers with pre-trained terrain autoencoders. Comprehensive experiments on a new dataset constructed from NASA Topology Images clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method, achieving the state-of-the-art performance. Our code and dataset will be publicly available.
The 2D animation workflow is typically initiated with the creation of keyframes using sketch-based drawing. Subsequent inbetweens (i.e., intermediate sketch frames) are crafted through manual interpolation for smooth animations, which is a labor-intensive process. Thus, the prospect of automatic animation sketch interpolation has become highly appealing. However, existing video interpolation methods are generally hindered by two key issues for sketch inbetweening: 1) limited texture and colour details in sketches, and 2) exaggerated alterations between two sketch keyframes. To overcome these issues, we propose a novel deep learning method, namely Fine-to-Coarse Sketch Interpolation Network (FC-SIN). This approach incorporates multi-level guidance that formulates region-level correspondence, sketch-level correspondence and pixel-level dynamics. A multi-stream U-Transformer is then devised to characterize sketch inbewteening patterns using these multi-level guides through the integration of both self-attention and cross-attention mechanisms. Additionally, to facilitate future research on animation sketch inbetweening, we constructed a large-scale dataset - STD-12K, comprising 30 sketch animation series in diverse artistic styles. Comprehensive experiments on this dataset convincingly show that our proposed FC-SIN surpasses the state-of-the-art interpolation methods. Our code and dataset will be publicly available.
Robust audio anti-spoofing has been increasingly challenging due to the recent advancements on deepfake techniques. While spectrograms have demonstrated their capability for anti-spoofing, complementary information presented in multi-order spectral patterns have not been well explored, which limits their effectiveness for varying spoofing attacks. Therefore, we propose a novel deep learning method with a spectral fusion-reconstruction strategy, namely S2pecNet, to utilise multi-order spectral patterns for robust audio anti-spoofing representations. Specifically, spectral patterns up to second-order are fused in a coarse-to-fine manner and two branches are designed for the fine-level fusion from the spectral and temporal contexts. A reconstruction from the fused representation to the input spectrograms further reduces the potential fused information loss. Our method achieved the state-of-the-art performance with an EER of 0.77% on a widely used dataset: ASVspoof2019 LA Challenge.
The Segment Anything Model (SAM) is a powerful foundation model that has revolutionised image segmentation. To apply SAM to surgical instrument segmentation, a common approach is to locate precise points or boxes of instruments and then use them as prompts for SAM in a zero-shot manner. However, we observe two problems with this naive pipeline: (1) the domain gap between natural objects and surgical instruments leads to poor generalisation of SAM; and (2) SAM relies on precise point or box locations for accurate segmentation, requiring either extensive manual guidance or a well-performing specialist detector for prompt preparation, which leads to a complex multi-stage pipeline. To address these problems, we introduce SurgicalSAM, a novel end-to-end efficient-tuning approach for SAM to effectively integrate surgical-specific information with SAM's pre-trained knowledge for improved generalisation. Specifically, we propose a lightweight prototype-based class prompt encoder for tuning, which directly generates prompt embeddings from class prototypes and eliminates the use of explicit prompts for improved robustness and a simpler pipeline. In addition, to address the low inter-class variance among surgical instrument categories, we propose contrastive prototype learning, further enhancing the discrimination of the class prototypes for more accurate class prompting. The results of extensive experiments on both EndoVis2018 and EndoVis2017 datasets demonstrate that SurgicalSAM achieves state-of-the-art performance while only requiring a small number of tunable parameters. The source code will be released at https://github.com/wenxi-yue/SurgicalSAM.
Deriving sophisticated 3D motions from sparse keyframes is a particularly challenging problem, due to continuity and exceptionally skeletal precision. The action features are often derivable accurately from the full series of keyframes, and thus, leveraging the global context with transformers has been a promising data-driven embedding approach. However, existing methods are often with inputs of interpolated intermediate frame for continuity using basic interpolation methods with keyframes, which result in a trivial local minimum during training. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to formulate latent motion manifolds with keyframe-based constraints, from which the continuous nature of intermediate token representations is considered. Particularly, our proposed framework consists of two stages for identifying a latent motion subspace, i.e., a keyframe encoding stage and an intermediate token generation stage, and a subsequent motion synthesis stage to extrapolate and compose motion data from manifolds. Through our extensive experiments conducted on both the LaFAN1 and CMU Mocap datasets, our proposed method demonstrates both superior interpolation accuracy and high visual similarity to ground truth motions.
Synthesizing controllable motion for a character using deep learning has been a promising approach due to its potential to learn a compact model without laborious feature engineering. To produce dynamic motion from weak control signals such as desired paths, existing methods often require auxiliary information such as phases for alleviating motion ambiguity, which limits their generalisation capability. As past poses often contain useful auxiliary hints, in this paper, we propose a task-agnostic deep learning method, namely Multi-scale Control Signal-aware Transformer (MCS-T), with an attention based encoder-decoder architecture to discover the auxiliary information implicitly for synthesizing controllable motion without explicitly requiring auxiliary information such as phase. Specifically, an encoder is devised to adaptively formulate the motion patterns of a character's past poses with multi-scale skeletons, and a decoder driven by control signals to further synthesize and predict the character's state by paying context-specialised attention to the encoded past motion patterns. As a result, it helps alleviate the issues of low responsiveness and slow transition which often happen in conventional methods not using auxiliary information. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results on an existing biped locomotion dataset, which involves diverse types of motion transitions, demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. In particular, MCS-T is able to successfully generate motions comparable to those generated by the methods using auxiliary information.
Person Re-identification (ReID) has been extensively studied in recent years due to the increasing demand in public security. However, collecting and dealing with sensitive personal data raises privacy concerns. Therefore, federated learning has been explored for Person ReID, which aims to share minimal sensitive data between different parties (clients). However, existing federated learning based person ReID methods generally rely on laborious and time-consuming data annotations and it is difficult to guarantee cross-domain consistency. Thus, in this work, a federated unsupervised cluster-contrastive (FedUCC) learning method is proposed for Person ReID. FedUCC introduces a three-stage modelling strategy following a coarse-to-fine manner. In detail, generic knowledge, specialized knowledge and patch knowledge are discovered using a deep neural network. This enables the sharing of mutual knowledge among clients while retaining local domain-specific knowledge based on the kinds of network layers and their parameters. Comprehensive experiments on 8 public benchmark datasets demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance of our proposed method.
The security of artificial intelligence (AI) is an important research area towards safe, reliable, and trustworthy AI systems. To accelerate the research on AI security, the Artificial Intelligence Security Competition (AISC) was organized by the Zhongguancun Laboratory, China Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team, Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Tsinghua University, and RealAI as part of the Zhongguancun International Frontier Technology Innovation Competition (https://www.zgc-aisc.com/en). The competition consists of three tracks, including Deepfake Security Competition, Autonomous Driving Security Competition, and Face Recognition Security Competition. This report will introduce the competition rules of these three tracks and the solutions of top-ranking teams in each track.