Recently, Transformer-based text detection techniques have sought to predict polygons by encoding the coordinates of individual boundary vertices using distinct query features. However, this approach incurs a significant memory overhead and struggles to effectively capture the intricate relationships between vertices belonging to the same instance. Consequently, irregular text layouts often lead to the prediction of outlined vertices, diminishing the quality of results. To address these challenges, we present an innovative approach rooted in Sparse R-CNN: a cascade decoding pipeline for polygon prediction. Our method ensures precision by iteratively refining polygon predictions, considering both the scale and location of preceding results. Leveraging this stabilized regression pipeline, even employing just a single feature vector to guide polygon instance regression yields promising detection results. Simultaneously, the leverage of instance-level feature proposal substantially enhances memory efficiency (>50% less vs. the state-of-the-art method DPText-DETR) and reduces inference speed (>40% less vs. DPText-DETR) with minor performance drop on benchmarks.
Diffusion-based text-to-image models ignited immense attention from the vision community, artists, and content creators. Broad adoption of these models is due to significant improvement in the quality of generations and efficient conditioning on various modalities, not just text. However, lifting the rich generative priors of these 2D models into 3D is challenging. Recent works have proposed various pipelines powered by the entanglement of diffusion models and neural fields. We explore the power of pretrained 2D diffusion models and standard 3D neural radiance fields as independent, standalone tools and demonstrate their ability to work together in a non-learned fashion. Such modularity has the intrinsic advantage of eased partial upgrades, which became an important property in such a fast-paced domain. Our pipeline accepts any legacy renderable geometry, such as textured or untextured meshes, orchestrates the interaction between 2D generative refinement and 3D consistency enforcement tools, and outputs a painted input geometry in several formats. We conduct a large-scale study on a wide range of objects and categories from the ShapeNetSem dataset and demonstrate the advantages of our approach, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Project page: https://www.obukhov.ai/repainting_3d_assets
Monitoring and understanding forest dynamics is essential for environmental conservation and management. This is why the Swiss National Forest Inventory (NFI) provides countrywide vegetation height maps at a spatial resolution of 0.5 m. Its long update time of 6 years, however, limits the temporal analysis of forest dynamics. This can be improved by using spaceborne remote sensing and deep learning to generate large-scale vegetation height maps in a cost-effective way. In this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of these methods for operational application in Switzerland. We generate annual, countrywide vegetation height maps at a 10-meter ground sampling distance for the years 2017 to 2020 based on Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. In comparison to previous works, we conduct a large-scale and detailed stratified analysis against a precise Airborne Laser Scanning reference dataset. This stratified analysis reveals a close relationship between the model accuracy and the topology, especially slope and aspect. We assess the potential of deep learning-derived height maps for change detection and find that these maps can indicate changes as small as 250 $m^2$. Larger-scale changes caused by a winter storm are detected with an F1-score of 0.77. Our results demonstrate that vegetation height maps computed from satellite imagery with deep learning are a valuable, complementary, cost-effective source of evidence to increase the temporal resolution for national forest assessments.
Panoptic segmentation is the combination of semantic and instance segmentation: assign the points in a 3D point cloud to semantic categories and partition them into distinct object instances. It has many obvious applications for outdoor scene understanding, from city mapping to forest management. Existing methods struggle to segment nearby instances of the same semantic category, like adjacent pieces of street furniture or neighbouring trees, which limits their usability for inventory- or management-type applications that rely on object instances. This study explores the steps of the panoptic segmentation pipeline concerned with clustering points into object instances, with the goal to alleviate that bottleneck. We find that a carefully designed clustering strategy, which leverages multiple types of learned point embeddings, significantly improves instance segmentation. Experiments on the NPM3D urban mobile mapping dataset and the FOR-instance forest dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of the proposed strategy.
Domain adaptive object detection aims to leverage the knowledge learned from a labeled source domain to improve the performance on an unlabeled target domain. Prior works typically require the access to the source domain data for adaptation, and the availability of sufficient data on the target domain. However, these assumptions may not hold due to data privacy and rare data collection. In this paper, we propose and investigate a more practical and challenging domain adaptive object detection problem under both source-free and few-shot conditions, named as SF-FSDA. To overcome this problem, we develop an efficient labeled data factory based approach. Without accessing the source domain, the data factory renders i) infinite amount of synthesized target-domain like images, under the guidance of the few-shot image samples and text description from the target domain; ii) corresponding bounding box and category annotations, only demanding minimum human effort, i.e., a few manually labeled examples. On the one hand, the synthesized images mitigate the knowledge insufficiency brought by the few-shot condition. On the other hand, compared to the popular pseudo-label technique, the generated annotations from data factory not only get rid of the reliance on the source pretrained object detection model, but also alleviate the unavoidably pseudo-label noise due to domain shift and source-free condition. The generated dataset is further utilized to adapt the source pretrained object detection model, realizing the robust object detection under SF-FSDA. The experiments on different settings showcase that our proposed approach outperforms other state-of-the-art methods on SF-FSDA problem. Our codes and models will be made publicly available.
During interactive segmentation, a model and a user work together to delineate objects of interest in a 3D point cloud. In an iterative process, the model assigns each data point to an object (or the background), while the user corrects errors in the resulting segmentation and feeds them back into the model. From a machine learning perspective the goal is to design the model and the feedback mechanism in a way that minimizes the required user input. The current best practice segments objects one at a time, and asks the user to provide positive clicks to indicate regions wrongly assigned to the background and negative clicks to indicate regions wrongly assigned to the object (foreground). Sequentially visiting objects is wasteful, since it disregards synergies between objects: a positive click for a given object can, by definition, serve as a negative click for nearby objects, moreover a direct competition between adjacent objects can speed up the identification of their common boundary. We introduce AGILE3D, an efficient, attention-based model that (1) supports simultaneous segmentation of multiple 3D objects, (2) yields more accurate segmentation masks with fewer user clicks, and (3) offers faster inference. We encode the point cloud into a latent feature representation, and view user clicks as queries and employ cross-attention to represent contextual relations between different click locations as well as between clicks and the 3D point cloud features. Every time new clicks are added, we only need to run a lightweight decoder that produces updated segmentation masks. In experiments with four different point cloud datasets, AGILE3D sets a new state of the art, moreover, we also verify its practicality in real-world setups with a real user study.
Data imbalance is ubiquitous when applying machine learning to real-world problems, particularly regression problems. If training data are imbalanced, the learning is dominated by the densely covered regions of the target distribution, consequently, the learned regressor tends to exhibit poor performance in sparsely covered regions. Beyond standard measures like over-sampling or re-weighting, there are two main directions to handle learning from imbalanced data. For regression, recent work relies on the continuity of the distribution; whereas for classification there has been a trend to employ mixture-of-expert models and let some ensemble members specialize in predictions for the sparser regions. Here, we adapt the mixture-of-experts approach to the regression setting. A main question when using this approach is how to fuse the predictions from multiple experts into one output. Drawing inspiration from recent work on probabilistic deep learning, we propose to base the fusion on the aleatoric uncertainties of individual experts, thus obviating the need for a separate aggregation module. In our method, dubbed MOUV, each expert predicts not only an output value but also its uncertainty, which in turn serves as a statistically motivated criterion to rely on the right experts. We compare our method with existing alternatives on multiple public benchmarks and show that MOUV consistently outperforms the prior art, while at the same time producing better calibrated uncertainty estimates. Our code is available at link-upon-publication.
Satellite image time series in the optical and infrared spectrum suffer from frequent data gaps due to cloud cover, cloud shadows, and temporary sensor outages. It has been a long-standing problem of remote sensing research how to best reconstruct the missing pixel values and obtain complete, cloud-free image sequences. We approach that problem from the perspective of representation learning and develop U-TILISE, an efficient neural model that is able to implicitly capture spatio-temporal patterns of the spectral intensities, and that can therefore be trained to map a cloud-masked input sequence to a cloud-free output sequence. The model consists of a convolutional spatial encoder that maps each individual frame of the input sequence to a latent encoding; an attention-based temporal encoder that captures dependencies between those per-frame encodings and lets them exchange information along the time dimension; and a convolutional spatial decoder that decodes the latent embeddings back into multi-spectral images. We experimentally evaluate the proposed model on EarthNet2021, a dataset of Sentinel-2 time series acquired all over Europe, and demonstrate its superior ability to reconstruct the missing pixels. Compared to a standard interpolation baseline, it increases the PSNR by 1.8 dB at previously seen locations and by 1.3 dB at unseen locations.
Earth observation (EO) is a prime instrument for monitoring land and ocean processes, studying the dynamics at work, and taking the pulse of our planet. This article gives a bird's eye view of the essential scientific tools and approaches informing and supporting the transition from raw EO data to usable EO-based information. The promises, as well as the current challenges of these developments, are highlighted under dedicated sections. Specifically, we cover the impact of (i) Computer vision; (ii) Machine learning; (iii) Advanced processing and computing; (iv) Knowledge-based AI; (v) Explainable AI and causal inference; (vi) Physics-aware models; (vii) User-centric approaches; and (viii) the much-needed discussion of ethical and societal issues related to the massive use of ML technologies in EO.
We present Neural Fields for LiDAR (NFL), a method to optimise a neural field scene representation from LiDAR measurements, with the goal of synthesizing realistic LiDAR scans from novel viewpoints. NFL combines the rendering power of neural fields with a detailed, physically motivated model of the LiDAR sensing process, thus enabling it to accurately reproduce key sensor behaviors like beam divergence, secondary returns, and ray dropping. We evaluate NFL on synthetic and real LiDAR scans and show that it outperforms explicit reconstruct-then-simulate methods as well as other NeRF-style methods on LiDAR novel view synthesis task. Moreover, we show that the improved realism of the synthesized views narrows the domain gap to real scans and translates to better registration and semantic segmentation performance.