As the latest advancements in natural language processing, large language models (LLMs) have achieved human-level language understanding and generation abilities in many real-world tasks, and even have been regarded as a potential path to the artificial general intelligence. To better facilitate research on LLMs, many open-source LLMs, such as Llama 2 and Falcon, have recently been proposed and gained comparable performances to proprietary models. However, these models are primarily designed for English scenarios and exhibit poor performances in Chinese contexts. In this technical report, we propose YAYI 2, including both base and chat models, with 30 billion parameters. YAYI 2 is pre-trained from scratch on a multilingual corpus which contains 2.65 trillion tokens filtered by our pre-training data processing pipeline. The base model is aligned with human values through supervised fine-tuning with millions of instructions and reinforcement learning from human feedback. Extensive experiments on multiple benchmarks, such as MMLU and CMMLU, consistently demonstrate that the proposed YAYI 2 outperforms other similar sized open-source models.
Neuroscience studies have shown that the human visual system utilizes high-level feedback information to guide lower-level perception, enabling adaptation to signals of different characteristics. In light of this, we propose Feedback multi-Level feature Extractor (Flex) to incorporate a similar mechanism for object detection. Flex refines feature selection based on image-wise and instance-level feedback information in response to image quality variation and classification uncertainty. Experimental results show that Flex offers consistent improvement to a range of existing SOTA methods on the challenging aerial object detection datasets including DOTA-v1.0, DOTA-v1.5, and HRSC2016. Although the design originates in aerial image detection, further experiments on MS COCO also reveal our module's efficacy in general detection models. Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate that the improvements are closely related to image qualities, which match our motivation.
Medical image segmentation annotations exhibit variations among experts due to the ambiguous boundaries of segmented objects and backgrounds in medical images. Although using multiple annotations for each image in the fully-supervised has been extensively studied for training deep models, obtaining a large amount of multi-annotated data is challenging due to the substantial time and manpower costs required for segmentation annotations, resulting in most images lacking any annotations. To address this, we propose Multi-annotated Semi-supervised Ensemble Networks (MSE-Nets) for learning segmentation from limited multi-annotated and abundant unannotated data. Specifically, we introduce the Network Pairwise Consistency Enhancement (NPCE) module and Multi-Network Pseudo Supervised (MNPS) module to enhance MSE-Nets for the segmentation task by considering two major factors: (1) to optimize the utilization of all accessible multi-annotated data, the NPCE separates (dis)agreement annotations of multi-annotated data at the pixel level and handles agreement and disagreement annotations in different ways, (2) to mitigate the introduction of imprecise pseudo-labels, the MNPS extends the training data by leveraging consistent pseudo-labels from unannotated data. Finally, we improve confidence calibration by averaging the predictions of base networks. Experiments on the ISIC dataset show that we reduced the demand for multi-annotated data by 97.75\% and narrowed the gap with the best fully-supervised baseline to just a Jaccard index of 4\%. Furthermore, compared to other semi-supervised methods that rely only on a single annotation or a combined fusion approach, the comprehensive experimental results on ISIC and RIGA datasets demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method in medical image segmentation with ambiguous boundaries.
Active Learning (AL) and Few Shot Learning (FSL) are two label-efficient methods which have achieved excellent results recently. However, most prior arts in both learning paradigms fail to explore the wealth of the vast unlabelled data. In this study, we address this issue in the scenario where the annotation budget is very limited, yet a large amount of unlabelled data for the target task is available. We frame this work in the context of histopathology where labelling is prohibitively expensive. To this end, we introduce an active few shot learning framework, Myriad Active Learning (MAL), including a contrastive-learning encoder, pseudo-label generation, and novel query sample selection in the loop. Specifically, we propose to massage unlabelled data in a self-supervised manner, where the obtained data representations and clustering knowledge form the basis to activate the AL loop. With feedback from the oracle in each AL cycle, the pseudo-labels of the unlabelled data are refined by optimizing a shallow task-specific net on top of the encoder. These updated pseudo-labels serve to inform and improve the active learning query selection process. Furthermore, we introduce a novel recipe to combine existing uncertainty measures and utilize the entire uncertainty list to reduce sample redundancy in AL. Extensive experiments on two public histopathology datasets show that MAL has superior test accuracy, macro F1-score, and label efficiency compared to prior works, and can achieve a comparable test accuracy to a fully supervised algorithm while labelling only 5% of the dataset.
Recent advances in Scene Graph Generation (SGG) typically model the relationships among entities utilizing box-level features from pre-defined detectors. We argue that an overlooked problem in SGG is the coarse-grained interactions between boxes, which inadequately capture contextual semantics for relationship modeling, practically limiting the development of the field. In this paper, we take the initiative to explore and propose a generic paradigm termed Superpixel-based Interaction Learning (SIL) to remedy coarse-grained interactions at the box level. It allows us to model fine-grained interactions at the superpixel level in SGG. Specifically, (i) we treat a scene as a set of points and cluster them into superpixels representing sub-regions of the scene. (ii) We explore intra-entity and cross-entity interactions among the superpixels to enrich fine-grained interactions between entities at an earlier stage. Extensive experiments on two challenging benchmarks (Visual Genome and Open Image V6) prove that our SIL enables fine-grained interaction at the superpixel level above previous box-level methods, and significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods across all metrics. More encouragingly, the proposed method can be applied to boost the performance of existing box-level approaches in a plug-and-play fashion. In particular, SIL brings an average improvement of 2.0% mR (even up to 3.4%) of baselines for the PredCls task on Visual Genome, which facilitates its integration into any existing box-level method.
Dynamic scene graphs generated from video clips could help enhance the semantic visual understanding in a wide range of challenging tasks such as environmental perception, autonomous navigation, and task planning of self-driving vehicles and mobile robots. In the process of temporal and spatial modeling during dynamic scene graph generation, it is particularly intractable to learn time-variant relations in dynamic scene graphs among frames. In this paper, we propose a Time-variant Relation-aware TRansformer (TR$^2$), which aims to model the temporal change of relations in dynamic scene graphs. Explicitly, we leverage the difference of text embeddings of prompted sentences about relation labels as the supervision signal for relations. In this way, cross-modality feature guidance is realized for the learning of time-variant relations. Implicitly, we design a relation feature fusion module with a transformer and an additional message token that describes the difference between adjacent frames. Extensive experiments on the Action Genome dataset prove that our TR$^2$ can effectively model the time-variant relations. TR$^2$ significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods under two different settings by 2.1% and 2.6% respectively.
Deep learning-based recommender systems (DRSs) are increasingly and widely deployed in the industry, which brings significant convenience to people's daily life in different ways. However, recommender systems are also shown to suffer from multiple issues,e.g., the echo chamber and the Matthew effect, of which the notation of "fairness" plays a core role.While many fairness notations and corresponding fairness testing approaches have been developed for traditional deep classification models, they are essentially hardly applicable to DRSs. One major difficulty is that there still lacks a systematic understanding and mapping between the existing fairness notations and the diverse testing requirements for deep recommender systems, not to mention further testing or debugging activities. To address the gap, we propose FairRec, a unified framework that supports fairness testing of DRSs from multiple customized perspectives, e.g., model utility, item diversity, item popularity, etc. We also propose a novel, efficient search-based testing approach to tackle the new challenge, i.e., double-ended discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) algorithm, to effectively search for hidden fairness issues in the form of certain disadvantaged groups from a vast number of candidate groups. Given the testing report, by adopting a simple re-ranking mitigation strategy on these identified disadvantaged groups, we show that the fairness of DRSs can be significantly improved. We conducted extensive experiments on multiple industry-level DRSs adopted by leading companies. The results confirm that FairRec is effective and efficient in identifying the deeply hidden fairness issues, e.g., achieving 95% testing accuracy with half to 1/8 time.
Discrimination has been shown in many machine learning applications, which calls for sufficient fairness testing before their deployment in ethic-relevant domains such as face recognition, medical diagnosis and criminal sentence. Existing fairness testing approaches are mostly designed for identifying individual discrimination, i.e., discrimination against individuals. Yet, as another widely concerning type of discrimination, testing against group discrimination, mostly hidden, is much less studied. To address the gap, in this work, we propose TESTSGD, an interpretable testing approach which systematically identifies and measures hidden (which we call `subtle' group discrimination} of a neural network characterized by conditions over combinations of the sensitive features. Specifically, given a neural network, TESTSGDfirst automatically generates an interpretable rule set which categorizes the input space into two groups exposing the model's group discrimination. Alongside, TESTSGDalso provides an estimated group fairness score based on sampling the input space to measure the degree of the identified subtle group discrimination, which is guaranteed to be accurate up to an error bound. We evaluate TESTSGDon multiple neural network models trained on popular datasets including both structured data and text data. The experiment results show that TESTSGDis effective and efficient in identifying and measuring such subtle group discrimination that has never been revealed before. Furthermore, we show that the testing results of TESTSGDcan guide generation of new samples to mitigate such discrimination through retraining with negligible accuracy drop.
Keyword spotting (KWS) is beneficial for voice-based user interactions with low-power devices at the edge. The edge devices are usually always-on, so edge computing brings bandwidth savings and privacy protection. The devices typically have limited memory spaces, computational performances, power and costs, for example, Cortex-M based microcontrollers. The challenge is to meet the high computation and low-latency requirements of deep learning on these devices. This paper firstly shows our small-footprint KWS system running on STM32F7 microcontroller with Cortex-M7 core @216MHz and 512KB static RAM. Our selected convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture has simplified number of operations for KWS to meet the constraint of edge devices. Our baseline system generates classification results for each 37ms including real-time audio feature extraction part. This paper further evaluates the actual performance for different pruning and quantization methods on microcontroller, including different granularity of sparsity, skipping zero weights, weight-prioritized loop order, and SIMD instruction. The result shows that for microcontrollers, there are considerable challenges for accelerate unstructured pruned models, and the structured pruning is more friendly than unstructured pruning. The result also verified that the performance improvement for quantization and SIMD instruction.
Federated learning (FL) is a collaborative learning paradigm where participants jointly train a powerful model without sharing their private data. One desirable property for FL is the implementation of the right to be forgotten (RTBF), i.e., a leaving participant has the right to request to delete its private data from the global model. However, unlearning itself may not be enough to implement RTBF unless the unlearning effect can be independently verified, an important aspect that has been overlooked in the current literature. In this paper, we prompt the concept of verifiable federated unlearning, and propose VeriFi, a unified framework integrating federated unlearning and verification that allows systematic analysis of the unlearning and quantification of its effect, with different combinations of multiple unlearning and verification methods. In VeriFi, the leaving participant is granted the right to verify (RTV), that is, the participant notifies the server before leaving, then actively verifies the unlearning effect in the next few communication rounds. The unlearning is done at the server side immediately after receiving the leaving notification, while the verification is done locally by the leaving participant via two steps: marking (injecting carefully-designed markers to fingerprint the leaver) and checking (examining the change of the global model's performance on the markers). Based on VeriFi, we conduct the first systematic and large-scale study for verifiable federated unlearning, considering 7 unlearning methods and 5 verification methods. Particularly, we propose a more efficient and FL-friendly unlearning method, and two more effective and robust non-invasive-verification methods. We extensively evaluate VeriFi on 7 datasets and 4 types of deep learning models. Our analysis establishes important empirical understandings for more trustworthy federated unlearning.