There is increasing attention being given to how to regulate AI systems. As governing bodies grapple with what values to encapsulate into regulation, we consider the technical half of the question: To what extent can AI experts vet an AI system for adherence to regulatory requirements? We investigate this question through two public sector procurement checklists, identifying what we can do now, what we should be able to do with technical innovation in AI, and what requirements necessitate a more interdisciplinary approach.
In this paper, we investigate the cause of the high false positive rate in Visual Relationship Detection (VRD). We observe that during training, the relationship proposal distribution is highly imbalanced: most of the negative relationship proposals are easy to identify, e.g., the inaccurate object detection, which leads to the under-fitting of low-frequency difficult proposals. This paper presents Spatially-Aware Balanced negative pRoposal sAmpling (SABRA), a robust VRD framework that alleviates the influence of false positives. To effectively optimize the model under imbalanced distribution, SABRA adopts Balanced Negative Proposal Sampling (BNPS) strategy for mini-batch sampling. BNPS divides proposals into 5 well defined sub-classes and generates a balanced training distribution according to the inverse frequency. BNPS gives an easier optimization landscape and significantly reduces the number of false positives. To further resolve the low-frequency challenging false positive proposals with high spatial ambiguity, we improve the spatial modeling ability of SABRA on two aspects: a simple and efficient multi-head heterogeneous graph attention network (MH-GAT) that models the global spatial interactions of objects, and a spatial mask decoder that learns the local spatial configuration. SABRA outperforms SOTA methods by a large margin on two human-object interaction (HOI) datasets and one general VRD dataset.