Understanding electric vehicle (EV) charging on the distribution network is key to effective EV charging management and aiding decarbonization across the energy and transport sectors. Advanced metering infrastructure has allowed distribution system operators and utility companies to collect high-resolution load data from their networks. These advancements enable the non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) technique to detect EV charging using load measurement data. While existing studies primarily focused on NILM for EV charging detection in individual households, there is a research gap on EV charging detection at the feeder level, presenting unique challenges due to the combined load measurement from multiple households. In this paper, we develop a novel and effective approach for EV detection at the feeder level, involving sliding-window feature extraction and classical machine learning techniques, specifically models like XGBoost and Random Forest. Our developed method offers a lightweight and efficient solution, capable of quick training. Moreover, our developed method is versatile, supporting both offline and online EV charging detection. Our experimental results demonstrate high-accuracy EV charging detection at the feeder level, achieving an F-Score of 98.88% in offline detection and 93.01% in online detection.
* The 7th IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System
Integration (EI2 2023)
Knowledge tracing (KT) aims to leverage students' learning histories to estimate their mastery levels on a set of pre-defined skills, based on which the corresponding future performance can be accurately predicted. In practice, a student's learning history comprises answers to sets of massed questions, each known as a session, rather than merely being a sequence of independent answers. Theoretically, within and across these sessions, students' learning dynamics can be very different. Therefore, how to effectively model the dynamics of students' knowledge states within and across the sessions is crucial for handling the KT problem. Most existing KT models treat student's learning records as a single continuing sequence, without capturing the sessional shift of students' knowledge state. To address the above issue, we propose a novel hierarchical transformer model, named HiTSKT, comprises an interaction(-level) encoder to capture the knowledge a student acquires within a session, and a session(-level) encoder to summarise acquired knowledge across the past sessions. To predict an interaction in the current session, a knowledge retriever integrates the summarised past-session knowledge with the previous interactions' information into proper knowledge representations. These representations are then used to compute the student's current knowledge state. Additionally, to model the student's long-term forgetting behaviour across the sessions, a power-law-decay attention mechanism is designed and deployed in the session encoder, allowing it to emphasize more on the recent sessions. Extensive experiments on three public datasets demonstrate that HiTSKT achieves new state-of-the-art performance on all the datasets compared with six state-of-the-art KT models.