Knowledge editing aims to change language models' performance on several special cases (i.e., editing scope) by infusing the corresponding expected knowledge into them. With the recent advancements in large language models (LLMs), knowledge editing has been shown as a promising technique to adapt LLMs to new knowledge without retraining from scratch. However, most of the previous studies neglect the multi-lingual nature of some main-stream LLMs (e.g., LLaMA, ChatGPT and GPT-4), and typically focus on monolingual scenarios, where LLMs are edited and evaluated in the same language. As a result, it is still unknown the effect of source language editing on a different target language. In this paper, we aim to figure out this cross-lingual effect in knowledge editing. Specifically, we first collect a large-scale cross-lingual synthetic dataset by translating ZsRE from English to Chinese. Then, we conduct English editing on various knowledge editing methods covering different paradigms, and evaluate their performance in Chinese, and vice versa. To give deeper analyses of the cross-lingual effect, the evaluation includes four aspects, i.e., reliability, generality, locality and portability. Furthermore, we analyze the inconsistent behaviors of the edited models and discuss their specific challenges.
Multi-modal knowledge graphs (MMKGs) combine different modal data (e.g., text and image) for a comprehensive understanding of entities. Despite the recent progress of large-scale MMKGs, existing MMKGs neglect the multi-aspect nature of entities, limiting the ability to comprehend entities from various perspectives. In this paper, we construct AspectMMKG, the first MMKG with aspect-related images by matching images to different entity aspects. Specifically, we collect aspect-related images from a knowledge base, and further extract aspect-related sentences from the knowledge base as queries to retrieve a large number of aspect-related images via an online image search engine. Finally, AspectMMKG contains 2,380 entities, 18,139 entity aspects, and 645,383 aspect-related images. We demonstrate the usability of AspectMMKG in entity aspect linking (EAL) downstream task and show that previous EAL models achieve a new state-of-the-art performance with the help of AspectMMKG. To facilitate the research on aspect-related MMKG, we further propose an aspect-related image retrieval (AIR) model, that aims to correct and expand aspect-related images in AspectMMKG. We train an AIR model to learn the relationship between entity image and entity aspect-related images by incorporating entity image, aspect, and aspect image information. Experimental results indicate that the AIR model could retrieve suitable images for a given entity w.r.t different aspects.
Constructing commonsense knowledge graphs (CKGs) has attracted wide research attention due to its significant importance in cognitive intelligence. Nevertheless, existing CKGs are typically oriented to English, limiting the research in non-English languages. Meanwhile, the emergence of foundation models like ChatGPT and GPT-4 has shown promising intelligence with the help of reinforcement learning from human feedback. Under the background, in this paper, we utilize foundation models to construct a Chinese CKG, named Snowman. Specifically, we distill different types of commonsense head items from ChatGPT, and continue to use it to collect tail items with respect to the head items and pre-defined relations. Based on the preliminary analysis, we find the negative commonsense knowledge distilled by ChatGPT achieves lower human acceptance compared to other knowledge. Therefore, we design a simple yet effective self-instruct filtering strategy to filter out invalid negative commonsense. Overall, the constructed Snowman covers more than ten million Chinese commonsense triples, making it the largest Chinese CKG. Moreover, human studies show the acceptance of Snowman achieves 90.6\%, indicating the high-quality triples distilled by the cutting-edge foundation model. We also conduct experiments on commonsense knowledge models to show the usability and effectiveness of our Snowman.
Many-to-many multimodal summarization (M$^3$S) task aims to generate summaries in any language with document inputs in any language and the corresponding image sequence, which essentially comprises multimodal monolingual summarization (MMS) and multimodal cross-lingual summarization (MXLS) tasks. Although much work has been devoted to either MMS or MXLS and has obtained increasing attention in recent years, little research pays attention to the M$^3$S task. Besides, existing studies mainly focus on 1) utilizing MMS to enhance MXLS via knowledge distillation without considering the performance of MMS or 2) improving MMS models by filtering summary-unrelated visual features with implicit learning or explicitly complex training objectives. In this paper, we first introduce a general and practical task, i.e., M$^3$S. Further, we propose a dual knowledge distillation and target-oriented vision modeling framework for the M$^3$S task. Specifically, the dual knowledge distillation method guarantees that the knowledge of MMS and MXLS can be transferred to each other and thus mutually prompt both of them. To offer target-oriented visual features, a simple yet effective target-oriented contrastive objective is designed and responsible for discarding needless visual information. Extensive experiments on the many-to-many setting show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Additionally, we will contribute a many-to-many multimodal summarization (M$^3$Sum) dataset.
To adapt text summarization to the multilingual world, previous work proposes multi-lingual summarization (MLS) and cross-lingual summarization (CLS). However, these two tasks have been studied separately due to the different definitions, which limits the compatible and systematic research on both of them. In this paper, we aim to unify MLS and CLS into a more general setting, i.e., many-to-many summarization (M2MS), where a single model could process documents in any language and generate their summaries also in any language. As the first step towards M2MS, we conduct preliminary studies to show that M2MS can better transfer task knowledge across different languages than MLS and CLS. Furthermore, we propose Pisces, a pre-trained M2MS model that learns language modeling, cross-lingual ability and summarization ability via three-stage pre-training. Experimental results indicate that our Pisces significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines, especially in the zero-shot directions, where there is no training data from the source-language documents to the target-language summaries.
Existing neural machine translation (NMT) studies mainly focus on developing dataset-specific models based on data from different tasks (e.g., document translation and chat translation). Although the dataset-specific models have achieved impressive performance, it is cumbersome as each dataset demands a model to be designed, trained, and stored. In this work, we aim to unify these translation tasks into a more general setting. Specifically, we propose a ``versatile'' model, i.e., the Unified Model Learning for NMT (UMLNMT) that works with data from different tasks, and can translate well in multiple settings simultaneously, and theoretically it can be as many as possible. Through unified learning, UMLNMT is able to jointly train across multiple tasks, implementing intelligent on-demand translation. On seven widely-used translation tasks, including sentence translation, document translation, and chat translation, our UMLNMT results in substantial improvements over dataset-specific models with significantly reduced model deployment costs. Furthermore, UMLNMT can achieve competitive or better performance than state-of-the-art dataset-specific methods. Human evaluation and in-depth analysis also demonstrate the superiority of our approach on generating diverse and high-quality translations. Additionally, we provide a new genre translation dataset about famous aphorisms with 186k Chinese->English sentence pairs.
Recently, graph pre-training has attracted wide research attention, which aims to learn transferable knowledge from unlabeled graph data so as to improve downstream performance. Despite these recent attempts, the negative transfer is a major issue when applying graph pre-trained models to downstream tasks. Existing works made great efforts on the issue of what to pre-train and how to pre-train by designing a number of graph pre-training and fine-tuning strategies. However, there are indeed cases where no matter how advanced the strategy is, the "pre-train and fine-tune" paradigm still cannot achieve clear benefits. This paper introduces a generic framework W2PGNN to answer the crucial question of when to pre-train (i.e., in what situations could we take advantage of graph pre-training) before performing effortful pre-training or fine-tuning. We start from a new perspective to explore the complex generative mechanisms from the pre-training data to downstream data. In particular, W2PGNN first fits the pre-training data into graphon bases, each element of graphon basis (i.e., a graphon) identifies a fundamental transferable pattern shared by a collection of pre-training graphs. All convex combinations of graphon bases give rise to a generator space, from which graphs generated form the solution space for those downstream data that can benefit from pre-training. In this manner, the feasibility of pre-training can be quantified as the generation probability of the downstream data from any generator in the generator space. W2PGNN provides three broad applications, including providing the application scope of graph pre-trained models, quantifying the feasibility of performing pre-training, and helping select pre-training data to enhance downstream performance. We give a theoretically sound solution for the first application and extensive empirical justifications for the latter two applications.
Recently, the emergence of ChatGPT has attracted wide attention from the computational linguistics community. Many prior studies have shown that ChatGPT achieves remarkable performance on various NLP tasks in terms of automatic evaluation metrics. However, the ability of ChatGPT to serve as an evaluation metric is still underexplored. Considering assessing the quality of NLG models is an arduous task and previous statistical metrics notoriously show their poor correlation with human judgments, we wonder whether ChatGPT is a good NLG evaluation metric. In this report, we provide a preliminary meta-evaluation on ChatGPT to show its reliability as an NLG metric. In detail, we regard ChatGPT as a human evaluator and give task-specific (e.g., summarization) and aspect-specific (e.g., relevance) instruction to prompt ChatGPT to score the generation of NLG models. We conduct experiments on three widely-used NLG meta-evaluation datasets (including summarization, story generation and data-to-text tasks). Experimental results show that compared with previous automatic metrics, ChatGPT achieves state-of-the-art or competitive correlation with golden human judgments. We hope our preliminary study could prompt the emergence of a general-purposed reliable NLG metric.
Given a document in a source language, cross-lingual summarization (CLS) aims to generate a summary in a different target language. Recently, the emergence of ChatGPT has attracted wide attention from the computational linguistics community. However, it is not yet known the performance of ChatGPT on CLS. In this report, we empirically use various prompts to guide ChatGPT to perform zero-shot CLS from different paradigms (i.e., end-to-end and pipeline), and provide a preliminary evaluation on its generated summaries.We find that ChatGPT originally prefers to produce lengthy summaries with more detailed information. But with the help of an interactive prompt, ChatGPT can balance between informativeness and conciseness, and significantly improve its CLS performance. Experimental results on three widely-used CLS datasets show that ChatGPT outperforms the advanced GPT 3.5 model (i.e., text-davinci-003). In addition, we provide qualitative case studies to show the superiority of ChatGPT on CLS.