While High Definition (HD) Maps have long been favored for their precise depictions of static road elements, their accessibility constraints and susceptibility to rapid environmental changes impede the widespread deployment of autonomous driving, especially in the motion forecasting task. In this context, we propose to leverage OpenStreetMap (OSM) as a promising alternative to HD Maps for long-term motion forecasting. The contributions of this work are threefold: firstly, we extend the application of OSM to long-horizon forecasting, doubling the forecasting horizon compared to previous studies. Secondly, through an expanded receptive field and the integration of intersection priors, our OSM-based approach exhibits competitive performance, narrowing the gap with HD Map-based models. Lastly, we conduct an exhaustive context-aware analysis, providing deeper insights in motion forecasting across diverse scenarios as well as conducting class-aware comparisons. This research not only advances long-term motion forecasting with coarse map representations but additionally offers a potential scalable solution within the domain of autonomous driving.
This research work seeks to explore and identify strategies that can determine road topology information in 2D and 3D under highly dynamic urban driving scenarios. To facilitate this exploration, we introduce a substantial dataset comprising nearly one million automatically labeled data frames. A key contribution of our research lies in developing an automatic label-generation process and an occlusion handling strategy. This strategy is designed to model a wide range of occlusion scenarios, from mild disruptions to severe blockages. Furthermore, we present a comprehensive ablation study wherein multiple centerline detection methods are developed and evaluated. This analysis not only benchmarks the performance of various approaches but also provides valuable insights into the interpretability of these methods. Finally, we demonstrate the practicality of our methods and assess their adaptability across different sensor configurations, highlighting their versatility and relevance in real-world scenarios. Our dataset and experimental models are publicly available.
This work introduces a new approach for joint detection of centerlines based on image data by localizing the features jointly in 2D and 3D. In contrast to existing work that focuses on detection of visual cues, we explore feature extraction methods that are directly amenable to the urban driving task. To develop and evaluate our approach, a large urban driving dataset dubbed AV Breadcrumbs is automatically labeled by leveraging vector map representations and projective geometry to annotate over 900,000 images. Our results demonstrate potential for dynamic scene modeling across various urban driving scenarios. Our model achieves an F1 score of 0.684 and an average normalized depth error of 2.083. The code and data annotations are publicly available.
* 5 pages, 4 figures, 1 table. Under review at IEEE Intelligent
Vehicles Symposium 2023
Many outdoor autonomous mobile platforms require more human identity anonymized data to power their data-driven algorithms. The human identity anonymization should be robust so that less manual intervention is needed, which remains a challenge for current face detection and anonymization systems. In this paper, we propose to use the skeleton generated from the state-of-the-art human pose estimation model to help localize human heads. We develop criteria to evaluate the performance and compare it with the face detection approach. We demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce missed faces and thus better protect the identity information for the pedestrians. We also develop a confidence-based fusion method to further improve the performance.
We present a framework for dynamic trajectory generation for autonomous navigation, which does not rely on HD maps as the underlying representation. High Definition (HD) maps have become a key component in most autonomous driving frameworks, which include complete road network information annotated at a centimeter-level that include traversable waypoints, lane information, and traffic signals. Instead, the presented approach models the distributions of feasible ego-centric trajectories in real-time given a nominal graph-based global plan and a lightweight scene representation. By embedding contextual information, such as crosswalks, stop signs, and traffic signals, our approach achieves low errors across multiple urban navigation datasets that include diverse intersection maneuvers, while maintaining real-time performance and reducing network complexity. Underlying datasets introduced are available online.
In recent years, various state of the art autonomous vehicle systems and architectures have been introduced. These methods include planners that depend on high-definition (HD) maps and models that learn an autonomous agent's controls in an end-to-end fashion. While end-to-end models are geared towards solving the scalability constraints from HD maps, they do not generalize for different vehicles and sensor configurations. To address these shortcomings, we introduce an approach that leverages lightweight map representations, explicitly enforcing geometric constraints, and learns feasible trajectories using a conditional generative model. Additional contributions include a new dataset that is used to verify our proposed models quantitatively. The results indicate low relative errors that can potentially translate to traversable trajectories. The dataset created as part of this work has been made available online.
For use of cameras on an intelligent vehicle, driving over a major bump could challenge the calibration. It is then of interest to do dynamic calibration. What structures can be used for calibration? How about using traffic signs that you recognize? In this paper an approach is presented for dynamic camera calibration based on recognition of stop signs. The detection is performed based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). A recognized sign is modeled as a polygon and matched to a model. Parameters are tracked over time. Experimental results show clear convergence and improved performance for the calibration.
Recent advancement in statistical learning and computational ability has enabled autonomous vehicle technology to develop at a much faster rate and become widely adopted. While many of the architectures previously introduced are capable of operating under highly dynamic environments, many of these are constrained to smaller-scale deployments and require constant maintenance due to the associated scalability cost with high-definition (HD) maps. HD maps provide critical information for self-driving cars to drive safely. However, traditional approaches for creating HD maps involves tedious manual labeling. As an attempt to tackle this problem, we fuse 2D image semantic segmentation with pre-built point cloud maps collected from a relatively inexpensive 16 channel LiDAR sensor to construct a local probabilistic semantic map in bird's eye view that encodes static landmarks such as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, and lanes in the driving environment. Experiments from data collected in an urban environment show that this model can be extended for automatically incorporating road features into HD maps with potential future work directions.
With the recent development of autonomous vehicle technology, there have been active efforts on the deployment of this technology at different scales that include urban and highway driving. While many of the prototypes showcased have shown to operate under specific cases, little effort has been made to better understand their shortcomings and generalizability to new areas. Distance, uptime and number of manual disengagements performed during autonomous driving provide a high-level idea on the performance of an autonomous system but without proper data normalization, testing location information, and the number of vehicles involved in testing, the disengagement reports alone do not fully encompass system performance and robustness. Thus, in this study a complete set of metrics are proposed for benchmarking autonomous vehicle systems in a variety of scenarios that can be extended for comparison with human drivers. These metrics have been used to benchmark UC San Diego's autonomous vehicle platforms during early deployments for micro-transit and autonomous mail delivery applications.