Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease that not only affects movement, speech, and breath but also cognition. Recent studies have focused on the use of language analysis techniques to detect ALS and infer scales for monitoring functional progression. In this paper, we focused on another important aspect, cognitive impairment, which affects 35-50% of the ALS population. In an effort to reach the ALS population, which frequently exhibits mobility limitations, we implemented the digital version of the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS) test for the first time. This test which is designed to measure cognitive impairment was remotely performed by 56 participants from the EverythingALS Speech Study. As part of the study, participants (ALS and non-ALS) were asked to describe weekly one picture from a pool of many pictures with complex scenes displayed on their computer at home. We analyze the descriptions performed within +/- 60 days from the day the ECAS test was administered and extract different types of linguistic and acoustic features. We input those features into linear regression models to infer 5 ECAS sub-scores and the total score. Speech samples from the picture description are reliable enough to predict the ECAS subs-scores, achieving statistically significant Spearman correlation values between 0.32 and 0.51 for the model's performance using 10-fold cross-validation.
Driving is a daily routine for many individuals across the globe. This paper presents the configuration and methodologies used to transform a vehicle into a connected ecosystem capable of assessing driver physiology. We integrated an array of commercial sensors from the automotive and digital health sectors along with driver inputs from the vehicle itself. This amalgamation of sensors allows for meticulous recording of the external conditions and driving maneuvers. These data streams are processed to extract key parameters, providing insights into driver behavior in relation to their external environment and illuminating vital physiological responses. This innovative driver evaluation system holds the potential to amplify road safety. Moreover, when paired with data from conventional health settings, it may enhance early detection of health-related complications.
Prewriting is the process of discovering and developing ideas before a first draft, which requires divergent thinking and often implies unstructured strategies such as diagramming, outlining, free-writing, etc. Although large language models (LLMs) have been demonstrated to be useful for a variety of tasks including creative writing, little is known about how users would collaborate with LLMs to support prewriting. The preferred collaborative role and initiative of LLMs during such a creativity process is also unclear. To investigate human-LLM collaboration patterns and dynamics during prewriting, we conducted a three-session qualitative study with 15 participants in two creative tasks: story writing and slogan writing. The findings indicated that during collaborative prewriting, there appears to be a three-stage iterative Human-AI Co-creativity process that includes Ideation, Illumination, and Implementation stages. This collaborative process champions the human in a dominant role, in addition to mixed and shifting levels of initiative that exist between humans and LLMs. This research also reports on collaboration breakdowns that occur during this process, user perceptions of using existing LLMs during Human-AI Co-creativity, and discusses design implications to support this co-creativity process.
Named entity recognition (NER) task aims at identifying entities from a piece of text that belong to predefined semantic types such as person, location, organization, etc. The state-of-the-art solutions for flat entities NER commonly suffer from capturing the fine-grained semantic information in underlying texts. The existing span-based approaches overcome this limitation, but the computation time is still a concern. In this work, we propose a novel span-based NER framework, namely Global Pointer (GP), that leverages the relative positions through a multiplicative attention mechanism. The ultimate goal is to enable a global view that considers the beginning and the end positions to predict the entity. To this end, we design two modules to identify the head and the tail of a given entity to enable the inconsistency between the training and inference processes. Moreover, we introduce a novel classification loss function to address the imbalance label problem. In terms of parameters, we introduce a simple but effective approximate method to reduce the training parameters. We extensively evaluate GP on various benchmark datasets. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that GP can outperform the existing solution. Moreover, the experimental results show the efficacy of the introduced loss function compared to softmax and entropy alternatives.
In the era of deep learning, loss functions determine the range of tasks available to models and algorithms. To support the application of deep learning in multi-label classification (MLC) tasks, we propose the ZLPR (zero-bounded log-sum-exp \& pairwise rank-based) loss in this paper. Compared to other rank-based losses for MLC, ZLPR can handel problems that the number of target labels is uncertain, which, in this point of view, makes it equally capable with the other two strategies often used in MLC, namely the binary relevance (BR) and the label powerset (LP). Additionally, ZLPR takes the corelation between labels into consideration, which makes it more comprehensive than the BR methods. In terms of computational complexity, ZLPR can compete with the BR methods because its prediction is also label-independent, which makes it take less time and memory than the LP methods. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of ZLPR on multiple benchmark datasets and multiple evaluation metrics. Moreover, we propose the soft version and the corresponding KL-divergency calculation method of ZLPR, which makes it possible to apply some regularization tricks such as label smoothing to enhance the generalization of models.
Lifelong on-device learning is a key challenge for machine intelligence, and this requires learning from few, often single, samples. Memory augmented neural network has been proposed to achieve the goal, but the memory module has to be stored in an off-chip memory due to its size. Therefore the practical use has been heavily limited. Previous works on emerging memory-based implementation have difficulties in scaling up because different modules with various structures are difficult to integrate on the same chip and the small sense margin of the content addressable memory for the memory module heavily limited the degree of mismatch calculation. In this work, we implement the entire memory augmented neural network architecture in a fully integrated memristive crossbar platform and achieve an accuracy that closely matches standard software on digital hardware for the Omniglot dataset. The successful demonstration is supported by implementing new functions in crossbars in addition to widely reported matrix multiplications. For example, the locality-sensitive hashing operation is implemented in crossbar arrays by exploiting the intrinsic stochasticity of memristor devices. Besides, the content-addressable memory module is realized in crossbars, which also supports the degree of mismatches. Simulations based on experimentally validated models show such an implementation can be efficiently scaled up for one-shot learning on the Mini-ImageNet dataset. The successful demonstration paves the way for practical on-device lifelong learning and opens possibilities for novel attention-based algorithms not possible in conventional hardware.
Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) task aims to associate a piece of text with a set of aspects and meanwhile infer their respective sentimental polarities. Up to now, the state-of-the-art approaches are built upon fine-tuning of various pre-trained language models. They commonly aim to learn the aspect-specific representation in the corpus. Unfortunately, the aspect is often expressed implicitly through a set of representatives and thus renders implicit mapping process unattainable unless sufficient labeled examples. In this paper, we propose to jointly address aspect categorization and aspect-based sentiment subtasks in a unified framework. Specifically, we first introduce a simple but effective mechanism that collaborates the semantic and syntactic information to construct auxiliary-sentences for the implicit aspect. Then, we encourage BERT to learn the aspect-specific representation in response to the automatically constructed auxiliary-sentence instead of the aspect itself. Finally, we empirically evaluate the performance of the proposed solution by a comparative study on real benchmark datasets for both ABSA and Targeted-ABSA tasks. Our extensive experiments show that it consistently achieves state-of-the-art performance in terms of aspect categorization and aspect-based sentiment across all datasets and the improvement margins are considerable.
In recent years, knowledge graphs have been widely applied as a uniform way to organize data and have enhanced many tasks requiring knowledge. In online shopping platform Taobao, we built a billion-scale e-commerce product knowledge graph. It organizes data uniformly and provides item knowledge services for various tasks such as item recommendation. Usually, such knowledge services are provided through triple data, while this implementation includes (1) tedious data selection works on product knowledge graph and (2) task model designing works to infuse those triples knowledge. More importantly, product knowledge graph is far from complete, resulting error propagation to knowledge enhanced tasks. To avoid these problems, we propose a Pre-trained Knowledge Graph Model (PKGM) for the billion-scale product knowledge graph. On the one hand, it could provide item knowledge services in a uniform way with service vectors for embedding-based and item-knowledge-related task models without accessing triple data. On the other hand, it's service is provided based on implicitly completed product knowledge graph, overcoming the common the incomplete issue. We also propose two general ways to integrate the service vectors from PKGM into downstream task models. We test PKGM in five knowledge-related tasks, item classification, item resolution, item recommendation, scene detection and sequential recommendation. Experimental results show that PKGM introduces significant performance gains on these tasks, illustrating the useful of service vectors from PKGM.
Multivariate time series (MTS) forecasting plays an important role in the automation and optimization of intelligent applications. It is a challenging task, as we need to consider both complex intra-variable dependencies and inter-variable dependencies. Existing works only learn temporal patterns with the help of single inter-variable dependencies. However, there are multi-scale temporal patterns in many real-world MTS. Single inter-variable dependencies make the model prefer to learn one type of prominent and shared temporal patterns. In this paper, we propose a multi-scale adaptive graph neural network (MAGNN) to address the above issue. MAGNN exploits a multi-scale pyramid network to preserve the underlying temporal dependencies at different time scales. Since the inter-variable dependencies may be different under distinct time scales, an adaptive graph learning module is designed to infer the scale-specific inter-variable dependencies without pre-defined priors. Given the multi-scale feature representations and scale-specific inter-variable dependencies, a multi-scale temporal graph neural network is introduced to jointly model intra-variable dependencies and inter-variable dependencies. After that, we develop a scale-wise fusion module to effectively promote the collaboration across different time scales, and automatically capture the importance of contributed temporal patterns. Experiments on four real-world datasets demonstrate that MAGNN outperforms the state-of-the-art methods across various settings.
Multivariate time series (MTS) forecasting has attracted much attention in many intelligent applications. It is not a trivial task, as we need to consider both intra-variable dependencies and inter-variable dependencies. However, existing works are designed for specific scenarios, and require much domain knowledge and expert efforts, which is difficult to transfer between different scenarios. In this paper, we propose a scale-aware neural architecture search framework for MTS forecasting (SNAS4MTF). A multi-scale decomposition module transforms raw time series into multi-scale sub-series, which can preserve multi-scale temporal patterns. An adaptive graph learning module infers the different inter-variable dependencies under different time scales without any prior knowledge. For MTS forecasting, a search space is designed to capture both intra-variable dependencies and inter-variable dependencies at each time scale. The multi-scale decomposition, adaptive graph learning, and neural architecture search modules are jointly learned in an end-to-end framework. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets demonstrate that SNAS4MTF achieves a promising performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods.