Non-linear effects in long-haul, high-speed optical fiber systems significantly hinder channel capacity. While the Digital Backward Propagation algorithm (DBP) with adaptive filter (ADF) can mitigate these effects, it suffers from an overwhelming computational complexity. Recent solutions have incorporated deep neural networks in a data-driven strategy to alleviate this complexity in the DBP model. However, these models are often limited to a specific symbol rate and channel number, necessitating retraining for different settings, their performance declines significantly under high-speed and high-power conditions. We introduce Meta-DSP, a novel data-driven nonlinear compensation model based on meta-learning that processes multi-modal data across diverse transmission rates, power levels, and channel numbers. This not only enhances signal quality but also substantially reduces the complexity of the nonlinear processing algorithm. Our model delivers a 0.7 dB increase in the Q-factor over Electronic Dispersion Compensation (EDC), and compared to DBP, it curtails computational complexity by a factor of ten while retaining comparable performance. From the perspective of the entire signal processing system, the core idea of Meta-DSP can be employed in any segment of the overall communication system to enhance the model's scalability and generalization performance. Our research substantiates Meta-DSP's proficiency in addressing the critical parameters defining optical communication networks.
With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, large language models (LLMs) have shown promising capabilities in mimicking human-level language comprehension and reasoning. This has sparked significant interest in applying LLMs to enhance various aspects of healthcare, ranging from medical education to clinical decision support. However, medicine involves multifaceted data modalities and nuanced reasoning skills, presenting challenges for integrating LLMs. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the applications and implications of LLMs in medicine. It begins by examining the fundamental applications of general-purpose and specialized LLMs, demonstrating their utilities in knowledge retrieval, research support, clinical workflow automation, and diagnostic assistance. Recognizing the inherent multimodality of medicine, the review then focuses on multimodal LLMs, investigating their ability to process diverse data types like medical imaging and EHRs to augment diagnostic accuracy. To address LLMs' limitations regarding personalization and complex clinical reasoning, the paper explores the emerging development of LLM-powered autonomous agents for healthcare. Furthermore, it summarizes the evaluation methodologies for assessing LLMs' reliability and safety in medical contexts. Overall, this review offers an extensive analysis on the transformative potential of LLMs in modern medicine. It also highlights the pivotal need for continuous optimizations and ethical oversight before these models can be effectively integrated into clinical practice. Visit https://github.com/mingze-yuan/Awesome-LLM-Healthcare for an accompanying GitHub repository containing latest papers.
Prompt Engineering (PE) has emerged as a critical technique for guiding Large Language Models (LLMs) in solving intricate tasks. Its importance is highlighted by its potential to significantly enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of human-machine interaction. As tasks grow increasingly complex, recent advanced PE methods have extended beyond the limitations of single-round interactions to embrace multi-round interactions, which allows for a deeper and more nuanced engagement with LLMs. In this paper, we propose an optimal control framework tailored for multi-round interactions with LLMs. This framework provides a unified mathematical structure that not only systematizes the existing PE methods but also sets the stage for rigorous analytical improvements. Furthermore, we extend this framework to include PE via ensemble methods and multi-agent collaboration, thereby enlarging the scope of applicability. By adopting an optimal control perspective, we offer fresh insights into existing PE methods and highlight theoretical challenges that warrant future research. Besides, our work lays a foundation for the development of more effective and interpretable PE methods.
Data assimilation is crucial in a wide range of applications, but it often faces challenges such as high computational costs due to data dimensionality and incomplete understanding of underlying mechanisms. To address these challenges, this study presents a novel assimilation framework, termed Latent Assimilation with Implicit Neural Representations (LAINR). By introducing Spherical Implicit Neural Representations (SINR) along with a data-driven uncertainty estimator of the trained neural networks, LAINR enhances efficiency in assimilation process. Experimental results indicate that LAINR holds certain advantage over existing methods based on AutoEncoders, both in terms of accuracy and efficiency.
This paper presents a novel, interdisciplinary study that leverages a Machine Learning (ML) assisted framework to explore the geometry of affine Deligne-Lusztig varieties (ADLV). The primary objective is to investigate the nonemptiness pattern, dimension and enumeration of irreducible components of ADLV. Our proposed framework demonstrates a recursive pipeline of data generation, model training, pattern analysis, and human examination, presenting an intricate interplay between ML and pure mathematical research. Notably, our data-generation process is nuanced, emphasizing the selection of meaningful subsets and appropriate feature sets. We demonstrate that this framework has a potential to accelerate pure mathematical research, leading to the discovery of new conjectures and promising research directions that could otherwise take significant time to uncover. We rediscover the virtual dimension formula and provide a full mathematical proof of a newly identified problem concerning a certain lower bound of dimension. Furthermore, we extend an open invitation to the readers by providing the source code for computing ADLV and the ML models, promoting further explorations. This paper concludes by sharing valuable experiences and highlighting lessons learned from this collaboration.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal cancer in which the tumor-vascular involvement greatly affects the resectability and, thus, overall survival of patients. However, current prognostic prediction methods fail to explicitly and accurately investigate relationships between the tumor and nearby important vessels. This paper proposes a novel learnable neural distance that describes the precise relationship between the tumor and vessels in CT images of different patients, adopting it as a major feature for prognosis prediction. Besides, different from existing models that used CNNs or LSTMs to exploit tumor enhancement patterns on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT imaging, we improved the extraction of dynamic tumor-related texture features in multi-phase contrast-enhanced CT by fusing local and global features using CNN and transformer modules, further enhancing the features extracted across multi-phase CT images. We extensively evaluated and compared the proposed method with existing methods in the multi-center (n=4) dataset with 1,070 patients with PDAC, and statistical analysis confirmed its clinical effectiveness in the external test set consisting of three centers. The developed risk marker was the strongest predictor of overall survival among preoperative factors and it has the potential to be combined with established clinical factors to select patients at higher risk who might benefit from neoadjuvant therapy.
Recently, using neural networks to simulate spatio-temporal dynamics has received a lot of attention. However, most existing methods adopt pure data-driven black-box models, which have limited accuracy and interpretability. By combining trainable difference operators with black-box models, we propose a new hybrid architecture explicitly embedded with partial prior knowledge of the underlying PDEs named PDE-Net++. Furthermore, we introduce two distinct options called the trainable flipping difference layer (TFDL) and the trainable dynamic difference layer (TDDL) for the difference operators. Numerous numerical experiments have demonstrated that PDE-Net++ has superior prediction accuracy and better extrapolation performance than black-box models.
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, but no guideline-recommended screening test exists. Existing methods can be invasive, expensive, and lack sensitivity to identify early-stage gastric cancer. In this study, we explore the feasibility of using a deep learning approach on non-contrast CT scans for gastric cancer detection. We propose a novel cluster-induced Mask Transformer that jointly segments the tumor and classifies abnormality in a multi-task manner. Our model incorporates learnable clusters that encode the texture and shape prototypes of gastric cancer, utilizing self- and cross-attention to interact with convolutional features. In our experiments, the proposed method achieves a sensitivity of 85.0% and specificity of 92.6% for detecting gastric tumors on a hold-out test set consisting of 100 patients with cancer and 148 normal. In comparison, two radiologists have an average sensitivity of 73.5% and specificity of 84.3%. We also obtain a specificity of 97.7% on an external test set with 903 normal cases. Our approach performs comparably to established state-of-the-art gastric cancer screening tools like blood testing and endoscopy, while also being more sensitive in detecting early-stage cancer. This demonstrates the potential of our approach as a novel, non-invasive, low-cost, and accurate method for opportunistic gastric cancer screening.