Structural re-parameterization has drawn increasing attention in various computer vision tasks. It aims at improving the performance of deep models without introducing any inference-time cost. Though efficient during inference, such models rely heavily on the complicated training-time blocks to achieve high accuracy, leading to large extra training cost. In this paper, we present online convolutional re-parameterization (OREPA), a two-stage pipeline, aiming to reduce the huge training overhead by squeezing the complex training-time block into a single convolution. To achieve this goal, we introduce a linear scaling layer for better optimizing the online blocks. Assisted with the reduced training cost, we also explore some more effective re-param components. Compared with the state-of-the-art re-param models, OREPA is able to save the training-time memory cost by about 70% and accelerate the training speed by around 2x. Meanwhile, equipped with OREPA, the models outperform previous methods on ImageNet by up to +0.6%.We also conduct experiments on object detection and semantic segmentation and show consistent improvements on the downstream tasks. Codes are available at https://github.com/JUGGHM/OREPA_CVPR2022 .
Recently, unsupervised person re-identification (Re-ID) has received increasing research attention due to its potential for label-free applications. A promising way to address unsupervised Re-ID is clustering-based, which generates pseudo labels by clustering and uses the pseudo labels to train a Re-ID model iteratively. However, most clustering-based methods take each cluster as a pseudo identity class, neglecting the intra-cluster variance mainly caused by the change of cameras. To address this issue, we propose to split each single cluster into multiple proxies according to camera views. The camera-aware proxies explicitly capture local structures within clusters, by which the intra-ID variance and inter-ID similarity can be better tackled. Assisted with the camera-aware proxies, we design two proxy-level contrastive learning losses that are, respectively, based on offline and online association results. The offline association directly associates proxies according to the clustering and splitting results, while the online strategy dynamically associates proxies in terms of up-to-date features to reduce the noise caused by the delayed update of pseudo labels. The combination of two losses enable us to train a desirable Re-ID model. Extensive experiments on three person Re-ID datasets and one vehicle Re-ID dataset show that our proposed approach demonstrates competitive performance with state-of-the-art methods. Code will be available at: https://github.com/Terminator8758/O2CAP.
This paper tackles the purely unsupervised person re-identification (Re-ID) problem that requires no annotations. Some previous methods adopt clustering techniques to generate pseudo labels and use the produced labels to train Re-ID models progressively. These methods are relatively simple but effective. However, most clustering-based methods take each cluster as a pseudo identity class, neglecting the large intra-ID variance caused mainly by the change of camera views. To address this issue, we propose to split each single cluster into multiple proxies and each proxy represents the instances coming from the same camera. These camera-aware proxies enable us to deal with large intra-ID variance and generate more reliable pseudo labels for learning. Based on the camera-aware proxies, we design both intra- and inter-camera contrastive learning components for our Re-ID model to effectively learn the ID discrimination ability within and across cameras. Meanwhile, a proxy-balanced sampling strategy is also designed, which facilitates our learning further. Extensive experiments on three large-scale Re-ID datasets show that our proposed approach outperforms most unsupervised methods by a significant margin. Especially, on the challenging MSMT17 dataset, we gain $14.3\%$ Rank-1 and $10.2\%$ mAP improvements when compared to the second place.
Model efficiency is crucial for object detection. Mostprevious works rely on either hand-crafted design or auto-search methods to obtain a static architecture, regardless ofthe difference of inputs. In this paper, we introduce a newperspective of designing efficient detectors, which is automatically generating sample-adaptive model architectureon the fly. The proposed method is named content-aware dynamic detectors (CADDet). It first applies a multi-scale densely connected network with dynamic routing as the supernet. Furthermore, we introduce a course-to-fine strat-egy tailored for object detection to guide the learning of dynamic routing, which contains two metrics: 1) dynamic global budget constraint assigns data-dependent expectedbudgets for individual samples; 2) local path similarity regularization aims to generate more diverse routing paths. With these, our method achieves higher computational efficiency while maintaining good performance. To the best of our knowledge, our CADDet is the first work to introduce dynamic routing mechanism in object detection. Experiments on MS-COCO dataset demonstrate that CADDet achieves 1.8 higher mAP with 10% fewer FLOPs compared with vanilla routing strategy. Compared with the models based upon similar building blocks, CADDet achieves a 42% FLOPs reduction with a competitive mAP.
Intra-camera supervision (ICS) for person re-identification (Re-ID) assumes that identity labels are independently annotated within each camera view and no inter-camera identity association is labeled. It is a new setting proposed recently to reduce the burden of annotation while expect to maintain desirable Re-ID performance. However, the lack of inter-camera labels makes the ICS Re-ID problem much more challenging than the fully supervised counterpart. By investigating the characteristics of ICS, this paper proposes camera-specific non-parametric classifiers, together with a hybrid mining quintuplet loss, to perform intra-camera learning. Then, an inter-camera learning module consisting of a graph-based ID association step and a Re-ID model updating step is conducted. Extensive experiments on three large-scale Re-ID datasets show that our approach outperforms all existing ICS works by a great margin. Our approach performs even comparable to state-of-the-art fully supervised methods in two of the datasets.
It is prohibitively expensive to annotate a large-scale video-based person re-identification (re-ID) dataset, which makes fully supervised methods inapplicable to real-world deployment. How to maximally reduce the annotation cost while retaining the re-ID performance becomes an interesting problem. In this paper, we address this problem by integrating an active learning scheme into a deep learning framework. Noticing that the truly matched tracklet-pairs, also denoted as true positives (TP), are the most informative samples for our re-ID model, we propose a sampling criterion to choose the most TP-likely tracklet-pairs for annotation. A view-aware sampling strategy considering view-specific biases is designed to facilitate candidate selection, followed by an adaptive resampling step to leave out the selected candidates that are unnecessary to annotate. Our method learns the re-ID model and updates the annotation set iteratively. The re-ID model is supervised by the tracklets' pesudo labels that are initialized by treating each tracklet as a distinct class. With the gained annotations of the actively selected candidates, the tracklets' pesudo labels are updated by label merging and further used to re-train our re-ID model. While being simple, the proposed method demonstrates its effectiveness on three video-based person re-ID datasets. Experimental results show that less than 3\% pairwise annotations are needed for our method to reach comparable performance with the fully-supervised setting.
Accurate traffic forecast is a challenging problem due to the large-scale problem size, as well as the complex and dynamic nature of spatio-temporal dependency of traffic flow. Most existing graph-based CNNs attempt to capture the static relations while largely neglecting the dynamics underlying sequential data. In this paper, we present dynamic spatio-temporal graph-based CNNs (DST-GCNNs) by learning expressive features to represent spatio-temporal structures and predict future traffic from historical traffic flow. In particular, DST-GCNN is a two stream network. In the flow prediction stream, we present a novel graph-based spatio-temporal convolutional layer to extract features from a graph representation of traffic flow. Then several such layers are stacked together to predict future traffic over time. Meanwhile, the proximity relations between nodes in the graph are often time variant as the traffic condition changes over time. To capture the graph dynamics, we use the graph prediction stream to predict the dynamic graph structures, and the predicted structures are fed into the flow prediction stream. Experiments on real traffic datasets demonstrate that the proposed model achieves competitive performances compared with the other state-of-the-art methods.
Weakly supervised object detection (WSOD), which is the problem of learning detectors using only image-level labels, has been attracting more and more interest. However, this problem is quite challenging due to the lack of location supervision. To address this issue, this paper integrates saliency into a deep architecture, in which the location in- formation is explored both explicitly and implicitly. Specifically, we select highly confident object pro- posals under the guidance of class-specific saliency maps. The location information, together with semantic and saliency information, of the selected proposals are then used to explicitly supervise the network by imposing two additional losses. Meanwhile, a saliency prediction sub-network is built in the architecture. The prediction results are used to implicitly guide the localization procedure. The entire network is trained end-to-end. Experiments on PASCAL VOC demonstrate that our approach outperforms all state-of-the-arts.