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Yating Wu, Ritika Mangla, Alexandros G. Dimakis, Greg Durrett, Junyi Jessy Li

Inquisitive questions -- open-ended, curiosity-driven questions people ask as they read -- are an integral part of discourse processing (Kehler and Rohde, 2017; Onea, 2016) and comprehension (Prince, 2004). Recent work in NLP has taken advantage of question generation capabilities of LLMs to enhance a wide range of applications. But the space of inquisitive questions is vast: many questions can be evoked from a given context. So which of those should be prioritized to find answers? Linguistic theories, unfortunately, have not yet provided an answer to this question. This paper presents QSALIENCE, a salience predictor of inquisitive questions. QSALIENCE is instruction-tuned over our dataset of linguist-annotated salience scores of 1,766 (context, question) pairs. A question scores high on salience if answering it would greatly enhance the understanding of the text (Van Rooy, 2003). We show that highly salient questions are empirically more likely to be answered in the same article, bridging potential questions (Onea, 2016) with Questions Under Discussion (Roberts, 2012). We further validate our findings by showing that answering salient questions is an indicator of summarization quality in news.

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Sunny Sanyal, Sujay Sanghavi, Alexandros G. Dimakis

We study the effectiveness of a simple approach to develop a small base language model (LM) starting from an existing large base LM: first inherit a few transformer blocks from the larger LM, and then train this smaller model on a very small subset (0.1\%) of the raw pretraining data of the larger model. We call our simple recipe Inheritune and first demonstrate it for building a small base LM with 1.5B parameters using 1B tokens (and a starting few layers of larger LM of 3B parameters); we do this using a single A6000 GPU for less than half a day. Across 9 diverse evaluation datasets as well as the MMLU benchmark, the resulting model compares favorably to publicly available base models of 1B-2B size, some of which have been trained using 50-1000 times more tokens. We investigate Inheritune in a slightly different setting where we train small LMs utilizing larger LMs and their full pre-training dataset. Here we show that smaller LMs trained utilizing some of the layers of GPT2-medium (355M) and GPT-2-large (770M) can effectively match the val loss of their bigger counterparts when trained from scratch for the same number of training steps on OpenWebText dataset with 9B tokens. We analyze our recipe with extensive experiments and demonstrate it efficacy on diverse settings. Our code is available at https://github.com/sanyalsunny111/LLM-Inheritune.

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Samir Yitzhak Gadre, Georgios Smyrnis, Vaishaal Shankar, Suchin Gururangan, Mitchell Wortsman, Rulin Shao, Jean Mercat, Alex Fang, Jeffrey Li, Sedrick Keh, Rui Xin, Marianna Nezhurina, Igor Vasiljevic, Jenia Jitsev, Alexandros G. Dimakis, Gabriel Ilharco, Shuran Song, Thomas Kollar, Yair Carmon, Achal Dave, Reinhard Heckel, Niklas Muennighoff, Ludwig Schmidt

Scaling laws are useful guides for developing language models, but there are still gaps between current scaling studies and how language models are ultimately trained and evaluated. For instance, scaling is usually studied in the compute-optimal training regime (i.e., "Chinchilla optimal" regime); however, in practice, models are often over-trained to reduce inference costs. Moreover, scaling laws mostly predict loss on next-token prediction, but ultimately models are compared based on downstream task performance. In this paper, we address both shortcomings. To do so, we create a testbed of 104 models with 0.011B to 6.9B parameters trained with various numbers of tokens on three data distributions. First, we investigate scaling in the over-trained regime. We fit scaling laws that extrapolate in both the number of model parameters and the ratio of training tokens to parameters. This enables us to predict the validation loss of a 1.4B parameter, 900B token run (i.e., 32$\times$ over-trained) and a 6.9B parameter, 138B token run$\unicode{x2014}$each from experiments that take 300$\times$ less compute. Second, we relate the perplexity of a language model to its downstream task performance via a power law. We use this law to predict top-1 error averaged over downstream tasks for the two aforementioned models using experiments that take 20$\times$ less compute. Our experiments are available at https://github.com/mlfoundations/scaling.

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Asad Aali, Giannis Daras, Brett Levac, Sidharth Kumar, Alexandros G. Dimakis, Jonathan I. Tamir

We provide a framework for solving inverse problems with diffusion models learned from linearly corrupted data. Our method, Ambient Diffusion Posterior Sampling (A-DPS), leverages a generative model pre-trained on one type of corruption (e.g. image inpainting) to perform posterior sampling conditioned on measurements from a potentially different forward process (e.g. image blurring). We test the efficacy of our approach on standard natural image datasets (CelebA, FFHQ, and AFHQ) and we show that A-DPS can sometimes outperform models trained on clean data for several image restoration tasks in both speed and performance. We further extend the Ambient Diffusion framework to train MRI models with access only to Fourier subsampled multi-coil MRI measurements at various acceleration factors (R=2, 4, 6, 8). We again observe that models trained on highly subsampled data are better priors for solving inverse problems in the high acceleration regime than models trained on fully sampled data. We open-source our code and the trained Ambient Diffusion MRI models: https://github.com/utcsilab/ambient-diffusion-mri .

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Litu Rout, Negin Raoof, Giannis Daras, Constantine Caramanis, Alexandros G. Dimakis, Sanjay Shakkottai

We present the first framework to solve linear inverse problems leveraging pre-trained latent diffusion models. Previously proposed algorithms (such as DPS and DDRM) only apply to pixel-space diffusion models. We theoretically analyze our algorithm showing provable sample recovery in a linear model setting. The algorithmic insight obtained from our analysis extends to more general settings often considered in practice. Experimentally, we outperform previously proposed posterior sampling algorithms in a wide variety of problems including random inpainting, block inpainting, denoising, deblurring, destriping, and super-resolution.

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Sriram Ravula, Varun Gorti, Bo Deng, Swagato Chakraborty, James Pingenot, Bhyrav Mutnury, Doug Wallace, Doug Winterberg, Adam Klivans, Alexandros G. Dimakis

A key problem when modeling signal integrity for passive filters and interconnects in IC packages is the need for multiple S-parameter measurements within a desired frequency band to obtain adequate resolution. These samples are often computationally expensive to obtain using electromagnetic (EM) field solvers. Therefore, a common approach is to select a small subset of the necessary samples and use an appropriate fitting mechanism to recreate a densely-sampled broadband representation. We present the first deep generative model-based approach to fit S-parameters from EM solvers using one-dimensional Deep Image Prior (DIP). DIP is a technique that optimizes the weights of a randomly-initialized convolutional neural network to fit a signal from noisy or under-determined measurements. We design a custom architecture and propose a novel regularization inspired by smoothing splines that penalizes discontinuous jumps. We experimentally compare DIP to publicly available and proprietary industrial implementations of Vector Fitting (VF), the industry-standard tool for fitting S-parameters. Relative to publicly available implementations of VF, our method shows superior performance on nearly all test examples using only 5-15% of the frequency samples. Our method is also competitive to proprietary VF tools and often outperforms them for challenging input instances.

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Sriram Ravula, Brett Levac, Ajil Jalal, Jonathan I. Tamir, Alexandros G. Dimakis

Diffusion-based generative models have been used as powerful priors for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction. We present a learning method to optimize sub-sampling patterns for compressed sensing multi-coil MRI that leverages pre-trained diffusion generative models. Crucially, during training we use a single-step reconstruction based on the posterior mean estimate given by the diffusion model and the MRI measurement process. Experiments across varying anatomies, acceleration factors, and pattern types show that sampling operators learned with our method lead to competitive, and in the case of 2D patterns, improved reconstructions compared to baseline patterns. Our method requires as few as five training images to learn effective sampling patterns.

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Giannis Daras, Kulin Shah, Yuval Dagan, Aravind Gollakota, Alexandros G. Dimakis, Adam Klivans

We present the first diffusion-based framework that can learn an unknown distribution using only highly-corrupted samples. This problem arises in scientific applications where access to uncorrupted samples is impossible or expensive to acquire. Another benefit of our approach is the ability to train generative models that are less likely to memorize individual training samples since they never observe clean training data. Our main idea is to introduce additional measurement distortion during the diffusion process and require the model to predict the original corrupted image from the further corrupted image. We prove that our method leads to models that learn the conditional expectation of the full uncorrupted image given this additional measurement corruption. This holds for any corruption process that satisfies some technical conditions (and in particular includes inpainting and compressed sensing). We train models on standard benchmarks (CelebA, CIFAR-10 and AFHQ) and show that we can learn the distribution even when all the training samples have $90\%$ of their pixels missing. We also show that we can finetune foundation models on small corrupted datasets (e.g. MRI scans with block corruptions) and learn the clean distribution without memorizing the training set.

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Sitan Chen, Giannis Daras, Alexandros G. Dimakis

We develop a framework for non-asymptotic analysis of deterministic samplers used for diffusion generative modeling. Several recent works have analyzed stochastic samplers using tools like Girsanov's theorem and a chain rule variant of the interpolation argument. Unfortunately, these techniques give vacuous bounds when applied to deterministic samplers. We give a new operational interpretation for deterministic sampling by showing that one step along the probability flow ODE can be expressed as two steps: 1) a restoration step that runs gradient ascent on the conditional log-likelihood at some infinitesimally previous time, and 2) a degradation step that runs the forward process using noise pointing back towards the current iterate. This perspective allows us to extend denoising diffusion implicit models to general, non-linear forward processes. We then develop the first polynomial convergence bounds for these samplers under mild conditions on the data distribution.

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Giannis Daras, Yuval Dagan, Alexandros G. Dimakis, Constantinos Daskalakis

Imperfect score-matching leads to a shift between the training and the sampling distribution of diffusion models. Due to the recursive nature of the generation process, errors in previous steps yield sampling iterates that drift away from the training distribution. Yet, the standard training objective via Denoising Score Matching (DSM) is only designed to optimize over non-drifted data. To train on drifted data, we propose to enforce a \emph{consistency} property which states that predictions of the model on its own generated data are consistent across time. Theoretically, we show that if the score is learned perfectly on some non-drifted points (via DSM) and if the consistency property is enforced everywhere, then the score is learned accurately everywhere. Empirically we show that our novel training objective yields state-of-the-art results for conditional and unconditional generation in CIFAR-10 and baseline improvements in AFHQ and FFHQ. We open-source our code and models: https://github.com/giannisdaras/cdm

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