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Authors:Litu Rout, Yujia Chen, Nataniel Ruiz, Abhishek Kumar, Constantine Caramanis, Sanjay Shakkottai, Wen-Sheng Chu

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Abstract:We propose Reference-Based Modulation (RB-Modulation), a new plug-and-play solution for training-free personalization of diffusion models. Existing training-free approaches exhibit difficulties in (a) style extraction from reference images in the absence of additional style or content text descriptions, (b) unwanted content leakage from reference style images, and (c) effective composition of style and content. RB-Modulation is built on a novel stochastic optimal controller where a style descriptor encodes the desired attributes through a terminal cost. The resulting drift not only overcomes the difficulties above, but also ensures high fidelity to the reference style and adheres to the given text prompt. We also introduce a cross-attention-based feature aggregation scheme that allows RB-Modulation to decouple content and style from the reference image. With theoretical justification and empirical evidence, our framework demonstrates precise extraction and control of content and style in a training-free manner. Further, our method allows a seamless composition of content and style, which marks a departure from the dependency on external adapters or ControlNets.

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Abstract:A striking property of transformers is their ability to perform in-context learning (ICL), a machine learning framework in which the learner is presented with a novel context during inference implicitly through some data, and tasked with making a prediction in that context. As such that learner must adapt to the context without additional training. We explore the role of softmax attention in an ICL setting where each context encodes a regression task. We show that an attention unit learns a window that it uses to implement a nearest-neighbors predictor adapted to the landscape of the pretraining tasks. Specifically, we show that this window widens with decreasing Lipschitzness and increasing label noise in the pretraining tasks. We also show that on low-rank, linear problems, the attention unit learns to project onto the appropriate subspace before inference. Further, we show that this adaptivity relies crucially on the softmax activation and thus cannot be replicated by the linear activation often studied in prior theoretical analyses.

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Authors:Litu Rout, Yujia Chen, Abhishek Kumar, Constantine Caramanis, Sanjay Shakkottai, Wen-Sheng Chu

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Abstract:Sampling from the posterior distribution poses a major computational challenge in solving inverse problems using latent diffusion models. Common methods rely on Tweedie's first-order moments, which are known to induce a quality-limiting bias. Existing second-order approximations are impractical due to prohibitive computational costs, making standard reverse diffusion processes intractable for posterior sampling. This paper introduces Second-order Tweedie sampler from Surrogate Loss (STSL), a novel sampler that offers efficiency comparable to first-order Tweedie with a tractable reverse process using second-order approximation. Our theoretical results reveal that the second-order approximation is lower bounded by our surrogate loss that only requires $O(1)$ compute using the trace of the Hessian, and by the lower bound we derive a new drift term to make the reverse process tractable. Our method surpasses SoTA solvers PSLD and P2L, achieving 4X and 8X reduction in neural function evaluations, respectively, while notably enhancing sampling quality on FFHQ, ImageNet, and COCO benchmarks. In addition, we show STSL extends to text-guided image editing and addresses residual distortions present from corrupted images in leading text-guided image editing methods. To our best knowledge, this is the first work to offer an efficient second-order approximation in solving inverse problems using latent diffusion and editing real-world images with corruptions.

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Abstract:Feature learning, i.e. extracting meaningful representations of data, is quintessential to the practical success of neural networks trained with gradient descent, yet it is notoriously difficult to explain how and why it occurs. Recent theoretical studies have shown that shallow neural networks optimized on a single task with gradient-based methods can learn meaningful features, extending our understanding beyond the neural tangent kernel or random feature regime in which negligible feature learning occurs. But in practice, neural networks are increasingly often trained on {\em many} tasks simultaneously with differing loss functions, and these prior analyses do not generalize to such settings. In the multi-task learning setting, a variety of studies have shown effective feature learning by simple linear models. However, multi-task learning via {\em nonlinear} models, arguably the most common learning paradigm in practice, remains largely mysterious. In this work, we present the first results proving feature learning occurs in a multi-task setting with a nonlinear model. We show that when the tasks are binary classification problems with labels depending on only $r$ directions within the ambient $d\gg r$-dimensional input space, executing a simple gradient-based multitask learning algorithm on a two-layer ReLU neural network learns the ground-truth $r$ directions. In particular, any downstream task on the $r$ ground-truth coordinates can be solved by learning a linear classifier with sample and neuron complexity independent of the ambient dimension $d$, while a random feature model requires exponential complexity in $d$ for such a guarantee.

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Authors:Litu Rout, Negin Raoof, Giannis Daras, Constantine Caramanis, Alexandros G. Dimakis, Sanjay Shakkottai

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Abstract:We present the first framework to solve linear inverse problems leveraging pre-trained latent diffusion models. Previously proposed algorithms (such as DPS and DDRM) only apply to pixel-space diffusion models. We theoretically analyze our algorithm showing provable sample recovery in a linear model setting. The algorithmic insight obtained from our analysis extends to more general settings often considered in practice. Experimentally, we outperform previously proposed posterior sampling algorithms in a wide variety of problems including random inpainting, block inpainting, denoising, deblurring, destriping, and super-resolution.

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Abstract:The study of collaborative multi-agent bandits has attracted significant attention recently. In light of this, we initiate the study of a new collaborative setting, consisting of $N$ agents such that each agent is learning one of $M$ stochastic multi-armed bandits to minimize their group cumulative regret. We develop decentralized algorithms which facilitate collaboration between the agents under two scenarios. We characterize the performance of these algorithms by deriving the per agent cumulative regret and group regret upper bounds. We also prove lower bounds for the group regret in this setting, which demonstrates the near-optimal behavior of the proposed algorithms.

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Abstract:The goal of contrasting learning is to learn a representation that preserves underlying clusters by keeping samples with similar content, e.g. the ``dogness'' of a dog, close to each other in the space generated by the representation. A common and successful approach for tackling this unsupervised learning problem is minimizing the InfoNCE loss associated with the training samples, where each sample is associated with their augmentations (positive samples such as rotation, crop) and a batch of negative samples (unrelated samples). To the best of our knowledge, it was unanswered if the representation learned by minimizing the InfoNCE loss preserves the underlying data clusters, as it only promotes learning a representation that is faithful to augmentations, i.e., an image and its augmentations have the same representation. Our main result is to show that the representation learned by InfoNCE with a finite number of negative samples is also consistent with respect to clusters in the data, under the condition that the augmentation sets within clusters may be non-overlapping but are close and intertwined, relative to the complexity of the learning function class.

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Abstract:This work considers the problem of finding a first-order stationary point of a non-convex function with potentially unbounded smoothness constant using a stochastic gradient oracle. We focus on the class of $(L_0,L_1)$-smooth functions proposed by Zhang et al. (ICLR'20). Empirical evidence suggests that these functions more closely captures practical machine learning problems as compared to the pervasive $L_0$-smoothness. This class is rich enough to include highly non-smooth functions, such as $\exp(L_1 x)$ which is $(0,\mathcal{O}(L_1))$-smooth. Despite the richness, an emerging line of works achieves the $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(\frac{1}{\sqrt{T}})$ rate of convergence when the noise of the stochastic gradients is deterministically and uniformly bounded. This noise restriction is not required in the $L_0$-smooth setting, and in many practical settings is either not satisfied, or results in weaker convergence rates with respect to the noise scaling of the convergence rate. We develop a technique that allows us to prove $\mathcal{O}(\frac{\mathrm{poly}\log(T)}{\sqrt{T}})$ convergence rates for $(L_0,L_1)$-smooth functions without assuming uniform bounds on the noise support. The key innovation behind our results is a carefully constructed stopping time $\tau$ which is simultaneously "large" on average, yet also allows us to treat the adaptive step sizes before $\tau$ as (roughly) independent of the gradients. For general $(L_0,L_1)$-smooth functions, our analysis requires the mild restriction that the multiplicative noise parameter $\sigma_1 < 1$. For a broad subclass of $(L_0,L_1)$-smooth functions, our convergence rate continues to hold when $\sigma_1 \geq 1$. By contrast, we prove that many algorithms analyzed by prior works on $(L_0,L_1)$-smooth optimization diverge with constant probability even for smooth and strongly-convex functions when $\sigma_1 > 1$.

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Abstract:We provide a theoretical justification for sample recovery using diffusion based image inpainting in a linear model setting. While most inpainting algorithms require retraining with each new mask, we prove that diffusion based inpainting generalizes well to unseen masks without retraining. We analyze a recently proposed popular diffusion based inpainting algorithm called RePaint (Lugmayr et al., 2022), and show that it has a bias due to misalignment that hampers sample recovery even in a two-state diffusion process. Motivated by our analysis, we propose a modified RePaint algorithm we call RePaint$^+$ that provably recovers the underlying true sample and enjoys a linear rate of convergence. It achieves this by rectifying the misalignment error present in drift and dispersion of the reverse process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first linear convergence result for a diffusion based image inpainting algorithm.

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Abstract:Advances in computer vision and machine learning enable robots to perceive their surroundings in powerful new ways, but these perception modules have well-known fragilities. We consider the problem of synthesizing a safe controller that is robust despite perception errors. The proposed method constructs a state estimator based on Gaussian processes with input-dependent noises. This estimator computes a high-confidence set for the actual state given a perceived state. Then, a robust neural network controller is synthesized that can provably handle the state uncertainty. Furthermore, an adaptive sampling algorithm is proposed to jointly improve the estimator and controller. Simulation experiments, including a realistic vision-based lane-keeping example in CARLA, illustrate the promise of the proposed approach in synthesizing robust controllers with deep-learning-based perception.

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