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Authors:Litu Rout, Yujia Chen, Nataniel Ruiz, Abhishek Kumar, Constantine Caramanis, Sanjay Shakkottai, Wen-Sheng Chu

Abstract:We propose Reference-Based Modulation (RB-Modulation), a new plug-and-play solution for training-free personalization of diffusion models. Existing training-free approaches exhibit difficulties in (a) style extraction from reference images in the absence of additional style or content text descriptions, (b) unwanted content leakage from reference style images, and (c) effective composition of style and content. RB-Modulation is built on a novel stochastic optimal controller where a style descriptor encodes the desired attributes through a terminal cost. The resulting drift not only overcomes the difficulties above, but also ensures high fidelity to the reference style and adheres to the given text prompt. We also introduce a cross-attention-based feature aggregation scheme that allows RB-Modulation to decouple content and style from the reference image. With theoretical justification and empirical evidence, our framework demonstrates precise extraction and control of content and style in a training-free manner. Further, our method allows a seamless composition of content and style, which marks a departure from the dependency on external adapters or ControlNets.

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Authors:Litu Rout, Yujia Chen, Abhishek Kumar, Constantine Caramanis, Sanjay Shakkottai, Wen-Sheng Chu

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Abstract:Sampling from the posterior distribution poses a major computational challenge in solving inverse problems using latent diffusion models. Common methods rely on Tweedie's first-order moments, which are known to induce a quality-limiting bias. Existing second-order approximations are impractical due to prohibitive computational costs, making standard reverse diffusion processes intractable for posterior sampling. This paper introduces Second-order Tweedie sampler from Surrogate Loss (STSL), a novel sampler that offers efficiency comparable to first-order Tweedie with a tractable reverse process using second-order approximation. Our theoretical results reveal that the second-order approximation is lower bounded by our surrogate loss that only requires $O(1)$ compute using the trace of the Hessian, and by the lower bound we derive a new drift term to make the reverse process tractable. Our method surpasses SoTA solvers PSLD and P2L, achieving 4X and 8X reduction in neural function evaluations, respectively, while notably enhancing sampling quality on FFHQ, ImageNet, and COCO benchmarks. In addition, we show STSL extends to text-guided image editing and addresses residual distortions present from corrupted images in leading text-guided image editing methods. To our best knowledge, this is the first work to offer an efficient second-order approximation in solving inverse problems using latent diffusion and editing real-world images with corruptions.

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Authors:Litu Rout, Negin Raoof, Giannis Daras, Constantine Caramanis, Alexandros G. Dimakis, Sanjay Shakkottai

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Abstract:We present the first framework to solve linear inverse problems leveraging pre-trained latent diffusion models. Previously proposed algorithms (such as DPS and DDRM) only apply to pixel-space diffusion models. We theoretically analyze our algorithm showing provable sample recovery in a linear model setting. The algorithmic insight obtained from our analysis extends to more general settings often considered in practice. Experimentally, we outperform previously proposed posterior sampling algorithms in a wide variety of problems including random inpainting, block inpainting, denoising, deblurring, destriping, and super-resolution.

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Abstract:This work considers the problem of finding a first-order stationary point of a non-convex function with potentially unbounded smoothness constant using a stochastic gradient oracle. We focus on the class of $(L_0,L_1)$-smooth functions proposed by Zhang et al. (ICLR'20). Empirical evidence suggests that these functions more closely captures practical machine learning problems as compared to the pervasive $L_0$-smoothness. This class is rich enough to include highly non-smooth functions, such as $\exp(L_1 x)$ which is $(0,\mathcal{O}(L_1))$-smooth. Despite the richness, an emerging line of works achieves the $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(\frac{1}{\sqrt{T}})$ rate of convergence when the noise of the stochastic gradients is deterministically and uniformly bounded. This noise restriction is not required in the $L_0$-smooth setting, and in many practical settings is either not satisfied, or results in weaker convergence rates with respect to the noise scaling of the convergence rate. We develop a technique that allows us to prove $\mathcal{O}(\frac{\mathrm{poly}\log(T)}{\sqrt{T}})$ convergence rates for $(L_0,L_1)$-smooth functions without assuming uniform bounds on the noise support. The key innovation behind our results is a carefully constructed stopping time $\tau$ which is simultaneously "large" on average, yet also allows us to treat the adaptive step sizes before $\tau$ as (roughly) independent of the gradients. For general $(L_0,L_1)$-smooth functions, our analysis requires the mild restriction that the multiplicative noise parameter $\sigma_1 < 1$. For a broad subclass of $(L_0,L_1)$-smooth functions, our convergence rate continues to hold when $\sigma_1 \geq 1$. By contrast, we prove that many algorithms analyzed by prior works on $(L_0,L_1)$-smooth optimization diverge with constant probability even for smooth and strongly-convex functions when $\sigma_1 > 1$.

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Abstract:We provide a theoretical justification for sample recovery using diffusion based image inpainting in a linear model setting. While most inpainting algorithms require retraining with each new mask, we prove that diffusion based inpainting generalizes well to unseen masks without retraining. We analyze a recently proposed popular diffusion based inpainting algorithm called RePaint (Lugmayr et al., 2022), and show that it has a bias due to misalignment that hampers sample recovery even in a two-state diffusion process. Motivated by our analysis, we propose a modified RePaint algorithm we call RePaint$^+$ that provably recovers the underlying true sample and enjoys a linear rate of convergence. It achieves this by rectifying the misalignment error present in drift and dispersion of the reverse process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first linear convergence result for a diffusion based image inpainting algorithm.

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Abstract:Sliced Wasserstein (SW) distance has been widely used in different application scenarios since it can be scaled to a large number of supports without suffering from the curse of dimensionality. The value of sliced Wasserstein distance is the average of transportation cost between one-dimensional representations (projections) of original measures that are obtained by Radon Transform (RT). Despite its efficiency in the number of supports, estimating the sliced Wasserstein requires a relatively large number of projections in high-dimensional settings. Therefore, for applications where the number of supports is relatively small compared with the dimension, e.g., several deep learning applications where the mini-batch approaches are utilized, the complexities from matrix multiplication of Radon Transform become the main computational bottleneck. To address this issue, we propose to derive projections by linearly and randomly combining a smaller number of projections which are named bottleneck projections. We explain the usage of these projections by introducing Hierarchical Radon Transform (HRT) which is constructed by applying Radon Transform variants recursively. We then formulate the approach into a new metric between measures, named Hierarchical Sliced Wasserstein (HSW) distance. By proving the injectivity of HRT, we derive the metricity of HSW. Moreover, we investigate the theoretical properties of HSW including its connection to SW variants and its computational and sample complexities. Finally, we compare the computational cost and generative quality of HSW with the conventional SW on the task of deep generative modeling using various benchmark datasets including CIFAR10, CelebA, and Tiny ImageNet.

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Abstract:Real-world image super-resolution (SR) tasks often do not have paired datasets limiting the application of supervised techniques. As a result, the tasks are usually approached by unpaired techniques based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) which yield complex training losses with several regularization terms such as content and identity losses. We theoretically investigate the optimization problems which arise in such models and find two surprising observations. First, the learned SR map is always an optimal transport (OT) map. Second, we empirically show that the learned map is biased, i.e., it may not actually transform the distribution of low-resolution images to high-resolution images. Inspired by these findings, we propose an algorithm for unpaired SR which learns an unbiased OT map for the perceptual transport cost. Unlike existing GAN-based alternatives, our algorithm has a simple optimization objective reducing the neccesity to perform complex hyperparameter selection and use additional regularizations. At the same time, it provides nearly state-of-the-art performance on the large-scale unpaired AIM-19 dataset.

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Abstract:With the discovery of Wasserstein GANs, Optimal Transport (OT) has become a powerful tool for large-scale generative modeling tasks. In these tasks, OT cost is typically used as the loss for training GANs. In contrast to this approach, we show that the OT map itself can be used as a generative model, providing comparable performance. Previous analogous approaches consider OT maps as generative models only in the latent spaces due to their poor performance in the original high-dimensional ambient space. In contrast, we apply OT maps directly in the ambient space, e.g., a space of high-dimensional images. First, we derive a min-max optimization algorithm to efficiently compute OT maps for the quadratic cost (Wasserstein-2 distance). Next, we extend the approach to the case when the input and output distributions are located in the spaces of different dimensions and derive error bounds for the computed OT map. We evaluate the algorithm on image generation and unpaired image restoration tasks. In particular, we consider denoising, colorization, and inpainting, where the optimality of the restoration map is a desired attribute, since the output (restored) image is expected to be close to the input (degraded) one.

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Authors:Litu Rout

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Abstract:Despite numerous attempts sought to provide empirical evidence of adversarial regularization outperforming sole supervision, the theoretical understanding of such phenomena remains elusive. In this study, we aim to resolve whether adversarial regularization indeed performs better than sole supervision at a fundamental level. To bring this insight into fruition, we study vanishing gradient issue, asymptotic iteration complexity, gradient flow and provable convergence in the context of sole supervision and adversarial regularization. The key ingredient is a theoretical justification supported by empirical evidence of adversarial acceleration in gradient descent. In addition, motivated by a recently introduced unit-wise capacity based generalization bound, we analyze the generalization error in adversarial framework. Guided by our observation, we cast doubts on the ability of this measure to explain generalization. We therefore leave as open questions to explore new measures that can explain generalization behavior in adversarial learning. Furthermore, we observe an intriguing phenomenon in the neural embedded vector space while contrasting adversarial learning with sole supervision.

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Authors:Litu Rout

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Abstract:Long after Turing's seminal Reaction-Diffusion (RD) model, the elegance of his fundamental equations alleviated much of the skepticism surrounding pattern formation. Though Turing model is a simplification and an idealization, it is one of the best-known theoretical models to explain patterns as a reminiscent of those observed in nature. Over the years, concerted efforts have been made to align theoretical models to explain patterns in real systems. The apparent difficulty in identifying the specific dynamics of the RD system makes the problem particularly challenging. Interestingly, we observe Turing-like patterns in a system of neurons with adversarial interaction. In this study, we establish the involvement of Turing instability to create such patterns. By theoretical and empirical studies, we present a pseudo-reaction-diffusion model to explain the mechanism that may underlie these phenomena. While supervised learning attains homogeneous equilibrium, this paper suggests that the introduction of an adversary helps break this homogeneity to create non-homogeneous patterns at equilibrium. Further, we prove that randomly initialized gradient descent with over-parameterization can converge exponentially fast to an $\epsilon$-stationary point even under adversarial interaction. In addition, different from sole supervision, we show that the solutions obtained under adversarial interaction are not limited to a tiny subspace around initialization.

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