The SoccerNet 2023 challenges were the third annual video understanding challenges organized by the SoccerNet team. For this third edition, the challenges were composed of seven vision-based tasks split into three main themes. The first theme, broadcast video understanding, is composed of three high-level tasks related to describing events occurring in the video broadcasts: (1) action spotting, focusing on retrieving all timestamps related to global actions in soccer, (2) ball action spotting, focusing on retrieving all timestamps related to the soccer ball change of state, and (3) dense video captioning, focusing on describing the broadcast with natural language and anchored timestamps. The second theme, field understanding, relates to the single task of (4) camera calibration, focusing on retrieving the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters from images. The third and last theme, player understanding, is composed of three low-level tasks related to extracting information about the players: (5) re-identification, focusing on retrieving the same players across multiple views, (6) multiple object tracking, focusing on tracking players and the ball through unedited video streams, and (7) jersey number recognition, focusing on recognizing the jersey number of players from tracklets. Compared to the previous editions of the SoccerNet challenges, tasks (2-3-7) are novel, including new annotations and data, task (4) was enhanced with more data and annotations, and task (6) now focuses on end-to-end approaches. More information on the tasks, challenges, and leaderboards are available on https://www.soccer-net.org. Baselines and development kits can be found on https://github.com/SoccerNet.
Sign Language Translation (SLT) is a challenging task due to its cross-domain nature, involving the translation of visual-gestural language to text. Many previous methods employ an intermediate representation, i.e., gloss sequences, to facilitate SLT, thus transforming it into a two-stage task of sign language recognition (SLR) followed by sign language translation (SLT). However, the scarcity of gloss-annotated sign language data, combined with the information bottleneck in the mid-level gloss representation, has hindered the further development of the SLT task. To address this challenge, we propose a novel Gloss-Free SLT based on Visual-Language Pretraining (GFSLT-VLP), which improves SLT by inheriting language-oriented prior knowledge from pre-trained models, without any gloss annotation assistance. Our approach involves two stages: (i) integrating Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) with masked self-supervised learning to create pre-tasks that bridge the semantic gap between visual and textual representations and restore masked sentences, and (ii) constructing an end-to-end architecture with an encoder-decoder-like structure that inherits the parameters of the pre-trained Visual Encoder and Text Decoder from the first stage. The seamless combination of these novel designs forms a robust sign language representation and significantly improves gloss-free sign language translation. In particular, we have achieved unprecedented improvements in terms of BLEU-4 score on the PHOENIX14T dataset (>+5) and the CSL-Daily dataset (>+3) compared to state-of-the-art gloss-free SLT methods. Furthermore, our approach also achieves competitive results on the PHOENIX14T dataset when compared with most of the gloss-based methods. Our code is available at https://github.com/zhoubenjia/GFSLT-VLP.
The SoccerNet 2022 challenges were the second annual video understanding challenges organized by the SoccerNet team. In 2022, the challenges were composed of 6 vision-based tasks: (1) action spotting, focusing on retrieving action timestamps in long untrimmed videos, (2) replay grounding, focusing on retrieving the live moment of an action shown in a replay, (3) pitch localization, focusing on detecting line and goal part elements, (4) camera calibration, dedicated to retrieving the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters, (5) player re-identification, focusing on retrieving the same players across multiple views, and (6) multiple object tracking, focusing on tracking players and the ball through unedited video streams. Compared to last year's challenges, tasks (1-2) had their evaluation metrics redefined to consider tighter temporal accuracies, and tasks (3-6) were novel, including their underlying data and annotations. More information on the tasks, challenges and leaderboards are available on https://www.soccer-net.org. Baselines and development kits are available on https://github.com/SoccerNet.
Transformer models have shown great success modeling long-range interactions. Nevertheless, they scale quadratically with input length and lack inductive biases. These limitations can be further exacerbated when dealing with the high dimensionality of video. Proper modeling of video, which can span from seconds to hours, requires handling long-range interactions. This makes Transformers a promising tool for solving video related tasks, but some adaptations are required. While there are previous works that study the advances of Transformers for vision tasks, there is none that focus on in-depth analysis of video-specific designs. In this survey we analyse and summarize the main contributions and trends for adapting Transformers to model video data. Specifically, we delve into how videos are embedded and tokenized, finding a very widspread use of large CNN backbones to reduce dimensionality and a predominance of patches and frames as tokens. Furthermore, we study how the Transformer layer has been tweaked to handle longer sequences, generally by reducing the number of tokens in single attention operation. Also, we analyse the self-supervised losses used to train Video Transformers, which to date are mostly constrained to contrastive approaches. Finally, we explore how other modalities are integrated with video and conduct a performance comparison on the most common benchmark for Video Transformers (i.e., action classification), finding them to outperform 3D CNN counterparts with equivalent FLOPs and no significant parameter increase.
Personality computing has become an emerging topic in computer vision, due to the wide range of applications it can be used for. However, most works on the topic have focused on analyzing the individual, even when applied to interaction scenarios, and for short periods of time. To address these limitations, we present the Dyadformer, a novel multi-modal multi-subject Transformer architecture to model individual and interpersonal features in dyadic interactions using variable time windows, thus allowing the capture of long-term interdependencies. Our proposed cross-subject layer allows the network to explicitly model interactions among subjects through attentional operations. This proof-of-concept approach shows how multi-modality and joint modeling of both interactants for longer periods of time helps to predict individual attributes. With Dyadformer, we improve state-of-the-art self-reported personality inference results on individual subjects on the UDIVA v0.5 dataset.
Effective conservation actions require effective population monitoring. However, accurately counting animals in the wild to inform conservation decision-making is difficult. Monitoring populations through image sampling has made data collection cheaper, wide-reaching and less intrusive but created a need to process and analyse this data efficiently. Counting animals from such data is challenging, particularly when densely packed in noisy images. Attempting this manually is slow and expensive, while traditional computer vision methods are limited in their generalisability. Deep learning is the state-of-the-art method for many computer vision tasks, but it has yet to be properly explored to count animals. To this end, we employ deep learning, with a density-based regression approach, to count fish in low-resolution sonar images. We introduce a large dataset of sonar videos, deployed to record wild mullet schools (Mugil liza), with a subset of 500 labelled images. We utilise abundant unlabelled data in a self-supervised task to improve the supervised counting task. For the first time in this context, by introducing uncertainty quantification, we improve model training and provide an accompanying measure of prediction uncertainty for more informed biological decision-making. Finally, we demonstrate the generalisability of our proposed counting framework through testing it on a recent benchmark dataset of high-resolution annotated underwater images from varying habitats (DeepFish). From experiments on both contrasting datasets, we demonstrate our network outperforms the few other deep learning models implemented for solving this task. By providing an open-source framework along with training data, our study puts forth an efficient deep learning template for crowd counting aquatic animals thereby contributing effective methods to assess natural populations from the ever-increasing visual data.
This paper introduces UDIVA, a new non-acted dataset of face-to-face dyadic interactions, where interlocutors perform competitive and collaborative tasks with different behavior elicitation and cognitive workload. The dataset consists of 90.5 hours of dyadic interactions among 147 participants distributed in 188 sessions, recorded using multiple audiovisual and physiological sensors. Currently, it includes sociodemographic, self- and peer-reported personality, internal state, and relationship profiling from participants. As an initial analysis on UDIVA, we propose a transformer-based method for self-reported personality inference in dyadic scenarios, which uses audiovisual data and different sources of context from both interlocutors to regress a target person's personality traits. Preliminary results from an incremental study show consistent improvements when using all available context information.