Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Abstract:Quantum architecture search~(QAS) is a promising direction for optimization and automated design of quantum circuits towards quantum advantage. Recent techniques in QAS focus on machine learning-based approaches from reinforcement learning, like deep Q-network. While multi-layer perceptron-based deep Q-networks have been applied for QAS, their interpretability remains challenging due to the high number of parameters. In this work, we evaluate the practicality of KANs in quantum architecture search problems, analyzing their efficiency in terms of the probability of success, frequency of optimal solutions and their dependencies on various degrees of freedom of the network. In a noiseless scenario, the probability of success and the number of optimal quantum circuit configurations to generate the multi-qubit maximally entangled states are significantly higher than MLPs. Moreover in noisy scenarios, KAN can achieve a better fidelity in approximating maximally entangled state than MLPs, where the performance of the MLP significantly depends on the choice of activation function. Further investigation reveals that KAN requires a very small number of learnable parameters compared to MLPs, however, the average time of executing each episode for KAN is much higher.

Via

Authors:Akash Kundu

Abstract:A significant hurdle in the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) era is identifying functional quantum circuits. These circuits must also adhere to the constraints imposed by current quantum hardware limitations. Variational quantum algorithms (VQAs), a class of quantum-classical optimization algorithms, were developed to address these challenges in the currently available quantum devices. However, the overall performance of VQAs depends on the initialization strategy of the variational circuit, the structure of the circuit (also known as ansatz), and the configuration of the cost function. Focusing on the structure of the circuit, in this thesis, we improve the performance of VQAs by automating the search for an optimal structure for the variational circuits using reinforcement learning (RL). Within the thesis, the optimality of a circuit is determined by evaluating its depth, the overall count of gates and parameters, and its accuracy in solving the given problem. The task of automating the search for optimal quantum circuits is known as quantum architecture search (QAS). The majority of research in QAS is primarily focused on a noiseless scenario. Yet, the impact of noise on the QAS remains inadequately explored. In this thesis, we tackle the issue by introducing a tensor-based quantum circuit encoding, restrictions on environment dynamics to explore the search space of possible circuits efficiently, an episode halting scheme to steer the agent to find shorter circuits, a double deep Q-network (DDQN) with an $\epsilon$-greedy policy for better stability. The numerical experiments on noiseless and noisy quantum hardware show that in dealing with various VQAs, our RL-based QAS outperforms existing QAS. Meanwhile, the methods we propose in the thesis can be readily adapted to address a wide range of other VQAs.

Via

Authors:Yash J. Patel, Akash Kundu, Mateusz Ostaszewski, Xavier Bonet-Monroig, Vedran Dunjko, Onur Danaci

Abstract:The key challenge in the noisy intermediate-scale quantum era is finding useful circuits compatible with current device limitations. Variational quantum algorithms (VQAs) offer a potential solution by fixing the circuit architecture and optimizing individual gate parameters in an external loop. However, parameter optimization can become intractable, and the overall performance of the algorithm depends heavily on the initially chosen circuit architecture. Several quantum architecture search (QAS) algorithms have been developed to design useful circuit architectures automatically. In the case of parameter optimization alone, noise effects have been observed to dramatically influence the performance of the optimizer and final outcomes, which is a key line of study. However, the effects of noise on the architecture search, which could be just as critical, are poorly understood. This work addresses this gap by introducing a curriculum-based reinforcement learning QAS (CRLQAS) algorithm designed to tackle challenges in realistic VQA deployment. The algorithm incorporates (i) a 3D architecture encoding and restrictions on environment dynamics to explore the search space of possible circuits efficiently, (ii) an episode halting scheme to steer the agent to find shorter circuits, and (iii) a novel variant of simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation as an optimizer for faster convergence. To facilitate studies, we developed an optimized simulator for our algorithm, significantly improving computational efficiency in simulating noisy quantum circuits by employing the Pauli-transfer matrix formalism in the Pauli-Liouville basis. Numerical experiments focusing on quantum chemistry tasks demonstrate that CRLQAS outperforms existing QAS algorithms across several metrics in both noiseless and noisy environments.

Via

Authors:Akash Kundu, Przemysław Bedełek, Mateusz Ostaszewski, Onur Danaci, Yash J. Patel, Vedran Dunjko, Jarosław A. Miszczak

Abstract:The development of variational quantum algorithms is crucial for the application of NISQ computers. Such algorithms require short quantum circuits, which are more amenable to implementation on near-term hardware, and many such methods have been developed. One of particular interest is the so-called the variational diagonalization method, which constitutes an important algorithmic subroutine, and it can be used directly for working with data encoded in quantum states. In particular, it can be applied to discern the features of quantum states, such as entanglement properties of a system, or in quantum machine learning algorithms. In this work, we tackle the problem of designing a very shallow quantum circuit, required in the quantum state diagonalization task, by utilizing reinforcement learning. To achieve this, we utilize a novel encoding method that can be used to tackle the problem of circuit depth optimization using a reinforcement learning approach. We demonstrate that our approach provides a solid approximation to the diagonalization task while using a small number of gates. The circuits proposed by the reinforcement learning methods are shallower than the standard variational quantum state diagonalization algorithm, and thus can be used in situations where the depth of quantum circuits is limited by the hardware capabilities.

Via