Open data refers to data that is freely available for reuse. Although there has been rapid increase in availability of open data to public in the last decade, this has not translated into better decision-support tools for them. We propose intelligent conversation generators as a grand challenge that would automatically create data-driven conversation interfaces (CIs), also known as chatbots or dialog systems, from open data and deliver personalized analytical insights to users based on their contextual needs. Such generators will not only help bring Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based solutions for important societal problems to the masses but also advance AI by providing an integrative testbed for human-centric AI and filling gaps in the state-of-art towards this aim.
Question answering (QA) is one of the most common NLP tasks that relates to named entity recognition, fact extraction, semantic search and some other fields. In industry, it is much appreciated in chatbots and corporate information systems. It is also a challenging task that attracted the attention of a very general audience at the quiz show Jeopardy! In this article we describe a Jeopardy!-like Russian QA data set collected from the official Russian quiz database Chgk (che ge ka). The data set includes 379,284 quiz-like questions with 29,375 from the Russian analogue of Jeopardy! - "Own Game". We observe its linguistic features and the related QA-task. We conclude about perspectives of a QA competition based on the data set collected from this database.
Large Scale Question-Answering systems today are widely used in downstream applications such as chatbots and conversational dialogue agents. Typically, such systems consist of an Answer Passage retrieval layer coupled with Machine Comprehension models trained on natural language query-passage pairs. Recent studies have explored Question Answering over structured data sources such as web-tables and relational databases. However, architectures such as Seq2SQL assume the correct table a priori which is input to the model along with the free text question. Our proposed method, analogues to a passage retrieval model in traditional Question-Answering systems, describes an architecture to discern the correct table pertaining to a given query from amongst a large pool of candidate tables.
In this paper, we present a novel method for measurably adjusting the semantics of text while preserving its sentiment and fluency, a task we call semantic text exchange. This is useful for text data augmentation and the semantic correction of text generated by chatbots and virtual assistants. We introduce a pipeline called SMERTI that combines entity replacement, similarity masking, and text infilling. We measure our pipeline's success by its Semantic Text Exchange Score (STES): the ability to preserve the original text's sentiment and fluency while adjusting semantic content. We propose to use masking (replacement) rate threshold as an adjustable parameter to control the amount of semantic change in the text. Our experiments demonstrate that SMERTI can outperform baseline models on Yelp reviews, Amazon reviews, and news headlines.
Task-oriented dialogue focuses on conversational agents that participate in user-initiated dialogues on domain-specific topics. In contrast to chatbots, which simply seek to sustain open-ended meaningful discourse, existing task-oriented agents usually explicitly model user intent and belief states. This paper examines bypassing such an explicit representation by depending on a latent neural embedding of state and learning selective attention to dialogue history together with copying to incorporate relevant prior context. We complement recent work by showing the effectiveness of simple sequence-to-sequence neural architectures with a copy mechanism. Our model outperforms more complex memory-augmented models by 7% in per-response generation and is on par with the current state-of-the-art on DSTC2.
Understanding emotion expressed in language has a wide range of applications, from building empathetic chatbots to detecting harmful online behavior. Advancement in this area can be improved using large-scale datasets with a fine-grained typology, adaptable to multiple downstream tasks. We introduce GoEmotions, the largest manually annotated dataset of 58k English Reddit comments, labeled for 27 emotion categories or Neutral. We demonstrate the high quality of the annotations via Principal Preserved Component Analysis. We conduct transfer learning experiments with existing emotion benchmarks to show that our dataset generalizes well to other domains and different emotion taxonomies. Our BERT-based model achieves an average F1-score of .46 across our proposed taxonomy, leaving much room for improvement.
Context modeling has a pivotal role in open domain conversation. Existing works either use heuristic methods or jointly learn context modeling and response generation with an encoder-decoder framework. This paper proposes an explicit context rewriting method, which rewrites the last utterance by considering context history. We leverage pseudo-parallel data and elaborate a context rewriting network, which is built upon the CopyNet with the reinforcement learning method. The rewritten utterance is beneficial to candidate retrieval, explainable context modeling, as well as enabling to employ a single-turn framework to the multi-turn scenario. The empirical results show that our model outperforms baselines in terms of the rewriting quality, the multi-turn response generation, and the end-to-end retrieval-based chatbots.
Dialogue systems research is traditionally focused on dialogues between two interlocutors, largely ignoring group conversations. Moreover, most previous research is focused either on task-oriented dialogue (e.g.\ restaurant bookings) or user engagement (chatbots), while research on systems for collaborative dialogues is an under-explored area. To this end, we introduce the first publicly available dataset containing collaborative conversations on solving a cognitive task, consisting of 500 group dialogues and 14k utterances. Furthermore, we propose a novel annotation schema that captures deliberation cues and release 50 dialogues annotated with it. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the annotated data in training classifiers to predict the constructiveness of a conversation. The data collection platform, dataset and annotated corpus are publicly available at https://delibot.xyz