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"cancer detection": models, code, and papers

A Robust and Effective Approach Towards Accurate Metastasis Detection and pN-stage Classification in Breast Cancer

May 30, 2018
Byungjae Lee, Kyunghyun Paeng

Predicting TNM stage is the major determinant of breast cancer prognosis and treatment. The essential part of TNM stage classification is whether the cancer has metastasized to the regional lymph nodes (N-stage). Pathologic N-stage (pN-stage) is commonly performed by pathologists detecting metastasis in histological slides. However, this diagnostic procedure is prone to misinterpretation and would normally require extensive time by pathologists because of the sheer volume of data that needs a thorough review. Automated detection of lymph node metastasis and pN-stage prediction has a great potential to reduce their workload and help the pathologist. Recent advances in convolutional neural networks (CNN) have shown significant improvements in histological slide analysis, but accuracy is not optimized because of the difficulty in the handling of gigapixel images. In this paper, we propose a robust method for metastasis detection and pN-stage classification in breast cancer from multiple gigapixel pathology images in an effective way. pN-stage is predicted by combining patch-level CNN based metastasis detector and slide-level lymph node classifier. The proposed framework achieves a state-of-the-art quadratic weighted kappa score of 0.9203 on the Camelyon17 dataset, outperforming the previous winning method of the Camelyon17 challenge.

* Accepted at MICCAI 2018 

A Novel and Efficient Tumor Detection Framework for Pancreatic Cancer via CT Images

Feb 11, 2020
Zhengdong Zhang, Shuai Li, Ziyang Wang, Yun Lu

As Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) have shown robust performance and results in medical image analysis, a number of deep-learning-based tumor detection methods were developed in recent years. Nowadays, the automatic detection of pancreatic tumors using contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) is widely applied for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer. Traditional hand-crafted methods only extract low-level features. Normal convolutional neural networks, however, fail to make full use of effective context information, which causes inferior detection results. In this paper, a novel and efficient pancreatic tumor detection framework aiming at fully exploiting the context information at multiple scales is designed. More specifically, the contribution of the proposed method mainly consists of three components: Augmented Feature Pyramid networks, Self-adaptive Feature Fusion and a Dependencies Computation (DC) Module. A bottom-up path augmentation to fully extract and propagate low-level accurate localization information is established firstly. Then, the Self-adaptive Feature Fusion can encode much richer context information at multiple scales based on the proposed regions. Finally, the DC Module is specifically designed to capture the interaction information between proposals and surrounding tissues. Experimental results achieve competitive performance in detection with the AUC of 0.9455, which outperforms other state-of-the-art methods to our best of knowledge, demonstrating the proposed framework can detect the tumor of pancreatic cancer efficiently and accurately.

* 5 pages, 5 figures 

Performance Comparison of Balanced and Unbalanced Cancer Datasets using Pre-Trained Convolutional Neural Network

Dec 10, 2020
Ali Narin

Cancer disease is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Breast cancer, which is a common cancer disease especially in women, is quite common. The most important tool used for early detection of this cancer type, which requires a long process to establish a definitive diagnosis, is histopathological images taken by biopsy. These obtained images are examined by pathologists and a definitive diagnosis is made. It is quite common to detect this process with the help of a computer. Detection of benign or malignant tumors, especially by using data with different magnification rates, takes place in the literature. In this study, two different balanced and unbalanced study groups have been formed by using the histopathological data in the BreakHis data set. We have examined how the performances of balanced and unbalanced data sets change in detecting tumor type. In conclusion, in the study performed using the InceptionV3 convolution neural network model, 93.55% accuracy, 99.19% recall and 87.10% specificity values have been obtained for balanced data, while 89.75% accuracy, 82.89% recall and 91.51% specificity values have been obtained for unbalanced data. According to the results obtained in two different studies, the balance of the data increases the overall performance as well as the detection performance of both benign and malignant tumors. It can be said that the model trained with the help of data sets created in a balanced way will give pathology specialists higher and accurate results.

* Presented for International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0 (ICAII4.0 2020) 

Lung Cancer Lesion Detection in Histopathology Images Using Graph-Based Sparse PCA Network

Oct 27, 2021
Sundaresh Ram, Wenfei Tang, Alexander J. Bell, Cara Spencer, Alexander Buschhaus, Charles R. Hatt, Marina Pasca diMagliano, Jeffrey J. Rodriguez, Stefanie Galban, Craig J. Galban

Early detection of lung cancer is critical for improvement of patient survival. To address the clinical need for efficacious treatments, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) have become integral in identifying and evaluating the molecular underpinnings of this complex disease that may be exploited as therapeutic targets. Assessment of GEMM tumor burden on histopathological sections performed by manual inspection is both time consuming and prone to subjective bias. Therefore, an interplay of needs and challenges exists for computer-aided diagnostic tools, for accurate and efficient analysis of these histopathology images. In this paper, we propose a simple machine learning approach called the graph-based sparse principal component analysis (GS-PCA) network, for automated detection of cancerous lesions on histological lung slides stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Our method comprises four steps: 1) cascaded graph-based sparse PCA, 2) PCA binary hashing, 3) block-wise histograms, and 4) support vector machine (SVM) classification. In our proposed architecture, graph-based sparse PCA is employed to learn the filter banks of the multiple stages of a convolutional network. This is followed by PCA hashing and block histograms for indexing and pooling. The meaningful features extracted from this GS-PCA are then fed to an SVM classifier. We evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm on H&E slides obtained from an inducible K-rasG12D lung cancer mouse model using precision/recall rates, F-score, Tanimoto coefficient, and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) and show that our algorithm is efficient and provides improved detection accuracy compared to existing algorithms.

* 10 pages, 9 figures, 3 tables 

Multispectral Spatial Characterization: Application to Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histopathology

Apr 15, 2013
H. Irshad, A. Gouaillard, L. Roux, D. Racoceanu

Accurate detection of mitosis plays a critical role in breast cancer histopathology. Manual detection and counting of mitosis is tedious and subject to considerable inter- and intra-reader variations. Multispectral imaging is a recent medical imaging technology, proven successful in increasing the segmentation accuracy in other fields. This study aims at improving the accuracy of mitosis detection by developing a specific solution using multispectral and multifocal imaging of breast cancer histopathological data. We propose to enable clinical routine-compliant quality of mitosis discrimination from other objects. The proposed framework includes comprehensive analysis of spectral bands and z-stack focus planes, detection of expected mitotic regions (candidates) in selected focus planes and spectral bands, computation of multispectral spatial features for each candidate, selection of multispectral spatial features and a study of different state-of-the-art classification methods for candidates classification as mitotic or non mitotic figures. This framework has been evaluated on MITOS multispectral medical dataset and achieved 60% detection rate and 57% F-Measure. Our results indicate that multispectral spatial features have more information for mitosis classification in comparison with white spectral band features, being therefore a very promising exploration area to improve the quality of the diagnosis assistance in histopathology.


MS-GWNN:multi-scale graph wavelet neural network for breast cancer diagnosis

Dec 29, 2020
Mo Zhang, Quanzheng Li

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, and early detection can significantly reduce the mortality rate of breast cancer. It is crucial to take multi-scale information of tissue structure into account in the detection of breast cancer. And thus, it is the key to design an accurate computer-aided detection (CAD) system to capture multi-scale contextual features in a cancerous tissue. In this work, we present a novel graph convolutional neural network for histopathological image classification of breast cancer. The new method, named multi-scale graph wavelet neural network (MS-GWNN), leverages the localization property of spectral graph wavelet to perform multi-scale analysis. By aggregating features at different scales, MS-GWNN can encode the multi-scale contextual interactions in the whole pathological slide. Experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. Moreover, through ablation studies, we find that multi-scale analysis has a significant impact on the accuracy of cancer diagnosis.


MHSnet: Multi-head and Spatial Attention Network with False-Positive Reduction for Pulmonary Nodules Detection

Feb 16, 2022
Juanyun Mai, Minghao Wang, Jiayin Zheng, Yanbo Shao, Zhaoqi Diao, Xinliang Fu, Yulong Chen, Jianyu Xiao, Jian You, Airu Yin, Yang Yang, Xiangcheng Qiu, Jinsheng Tao, Bo Wang, Hua Ji

The mortality of lung cancer has ranked high among cancers for many years. Early detection of lung cancer is critical for disease prevention, cure, and mortality rate reduction. However, existing detection methods on pulmonary nodules introduce an excessive number of false positive proposals in order to achieve high sensitivity, which is not practical in clinical situations. In this paper, we propose the multi-head detection and spatial squeeze-and-attention network, MHSnet, to detect pulmonary nodules, in order to aid doctors in the early diagnosis of lung cancers. Specifically, we first introduce multi-head detectors and skip connections to customize for the variety of nodules in sizes, shapes and types and capture multi-scale features. Then, we implement a spatial attention module to enable the network to focus on different regions differently inspired by how experienced clinicians screen CT images, which results in fewer false positive proposals. Lastly, we present a lightweight but effective false positive reduction module with the Linear Regression model to cut down the number of false positive proposals, without any constraints on the front network. Extensive experimental results compared with the state-of-the-art models have shown the superiority of the MHSnet in terms of the average FROC, sensitivity and especially false discovery rate (2.98% and 2.18% improvement in terms of average FROC and sensitivity, 5.62% and 28.33% decrease in terms of false discovery rate and average candidates per scan). The false positive reduction module significantly decreases the average number of candidates generated per scan by 68.11% and the false discovery rate by 13.48%, which is promising to reduce distracted proposals for the downstream tasks based on the detection results.


Hyper-Heuristic Algorithm for Finding Efficient Features in Diagnose of Lung Cancer Disease

Jan 24, 2016
Mitra Montazeri, Mahdieh Soleymani Baghshah, Ahmad Enhesari

Background: Lung cancer was known as primary cancers and the survival rate of cancer is about 15%. Early detection of lung cancer is the leading factor in survival rate. All symptoms (features) of lung cancer do not appear until the cancer spreads to other areas. It needs an accurate early detection of lung cancer, for increasing the survival rate. For accurate detection, it need characterizes efficient features and delete redundancy features among all features. Feature selection is the problem of selecting informative features among all features. Materials and Methods: Lung cancer database consist of 32 patient records with 57 features. This database collected by Hong and Youngand indexed in the University of California Irvine repository. Experimental contents include the extracted from the clinical data and X-ray data, etc. The data described 3 types of pathological lung cancers and all features are taking an integer value 0-3. In our study, new method is proposed for identify efficient features of lung cancer. It is based on Hyper-Heuristic. Results: We obtained an accuracy of 80.63% using reduced 11 feature set. The proposed method compare to the accuracy of 5 machine learning feature selections. The accuracy of these 5 methods are 60.94, 57.81, 68.75, 60.94 and 68.75. Conclusions: The proposed method has better performance with the highest level of accuracy. Therefore, the proposed model is recommended for identifying an efficient symptom of Disease. These finding are very important in health research, particularly in allocation of medical resources for patients who predicted as high-risks

* J. Basic Appl. Sci. Res, 2013. 3(10): p. 134-140 
* Published in the Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2013 

A Smartphone based Application for Skin Cancer Classification Using Deep Learning with Clinical Images and Lesion Information

Apr 28, 2021
Breno Krohling, Pedro B. C. Castro, Andre G. C. Pacheco, Renato A. Krohling

Over the last decades, the incidence of skin cancer, melanoma and non-melanoma, has increased at a continuous rate. In particular for melanoma, the deadliest type of skin cancer, early detection is important to increase patient prognosis. Recently, deep neural networks (DNNs) have become viable to deal with skin cancer detection. In this work, we present a smartphone-based application to assist on skin cancer detection. This application is based on a Convolutional Neural Network(CNN) trained on clinical images and patients demographics, both collected from smartphones. Also, as skin cancer datasets are imbalanced, we present an approach, based on the mutation operator of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm, to balance data. In this sense, beyond provides a flexible tool to assist doctors on skin cancer screening phase, the method obtains promising results with a balanced accuracy of 85% and a recall of 96%.