Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most frequent cause of malignancy-related death and is one of the diseases with the highest incidence in the world. Because the liver is the only organ in the human body that is supplied by two major vessels: the hepatic artery and the portal vein, various types of malignant tumors can spread from other organs to the liver. And due to the liver masses' heterogeneous and diffusive shape, the tumor lesions are very difficult to be recognized, thus automatic lesion detection is necessary for the doctors with huge workloads. To assist doctors, this work uses the existing large-scale annotation medical image data to delve deep into liver lesion detection from multiple directions. To solve technical difficulties, such as the image-recognition task, traditional deep learning with convolution neural networks (CNNs) has been widely applied in recent years. However, this kind of neural network, such as Faster Regions with CNN features (R-CNN), cannot leverage the spatial information because it is applied in natural images (2D) rather than medical images (3D), such as computed tomography (CT) images. To address this issue, we propose a novel algorithm that is appropriate for liver CT imaging. Furthermore, according to radiologists' experience in clinical diagnosis and the characteristics of CT images of liver cancer, a liver cancer-detection framework with CNN, including image processing, feature extraction, region proposal, image registration, and classification recognition, was proposed to facilitate the effective detection of liver lesions.
Pathological diagnosis is the gold standard for cancer diagnosis, but it is labor-intensive, in which tasks such as cell detection, classification, and counting are particularly prominent. A common solution for automating these tasks is using nucleus segmentation technology. However, it is hard to train a robust nucleus segmentation model, due to several challenging problems, the nucleus adhesion, stacking, and excessive fusion with the background. Recently, some researchers proposed a series of automatic nucleus segmentation methods based on point annotation, which can significant improve the model performance. Nevertheless, the point annotation needs to be marked by experienced pathologists. In order to take advantage of segmentation methods based on point annotation, further alleviate the manual workload, and make cancer diagnosis more efficient and accurate, it is necessary to develop an automatic nucleus detection algorithm, which can automatically and efficiently locate the position of the nucleus in the pathological image and extract valuable information for pathologists. In this paper, we propose a W-shaped network for automatic nucleus detection. Different from the traditional U-Net based method, mapping the original pathology image to the target mask directly, our proposed method split the detection task into two sub-tasks. The first sub-task maps the original pathology image to the binary mask, then the binary mask is mapped to the density mask in the second sub-task. After the task is split, the task's difficulty is significantly reduced, and the network's overall performance is improved.
In this paper, we introduced a novel feature extraction approach, named exclusive autoencoder (XAE), which is a supervised version of autoencoder (AE), able to largely improve the performance of nucleus detection and classification on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathological images. The proposed XAE can be used in any AE-based algorithm, as long as the data labels are also provided in the feature extraction phase. In the experiments, we evaluated the performance of an approach which is the combination of an XAE and a fully connected neural network (FCN) and compared with some AE-based methods. For a nucleus detection problem (considered as a nucleus/non-nucleus classification problem) on breast cancer H&E images, the F-score of the proposed XAE+FCN approach achieved 96.64% while the state-of-the-art was at 84.49%. For nucleus classification on colorectal cancer H&E images, with the annotations of four categories of epithelial, inflammatory, fibroblast and miscellaneous nuclei. The F-score of the proposed method reached 70.4%. We also proposed a lymphocyte segmentation method. In the step of lymphocyte detection, we have compared with cutting-edge technology and gained improved performance from 90% to 98.67%. We also proposed an algorithm for lymphocyte segmentation based on nucleus detection and classification. The obtained Dice coefficient achieved 88.31% while the cutting-edge approach was at 74%.
This study focuses on automatic skin cancer detection using a Meta-learning approach for dermoscopic images. The aim of this study is to explore the benefits of the generalization of the knowledge extracted from non-medical data in the classification performance of medical data and the impact of the distribution shift problem within limited data by using a simple class and distribution balancer algorithm. In this study, a small sample of a combined dataset from 3 different sources was used to fine-tune a ResNet model pre-trained on non-medical data. The results show an increase in performance on detecting melanoma, malignant (skin cancer), and benign moles with the prior knowledge obtained from images of everyday objects from the ImageNet dataset by 20 points. These findings suggest that features from non-medical images can be used towards the classification of skin moles and that the distribution of the data affects the performance of the model.
The appearance of microcalcifications in mammograms is one of the early signs of breast cancer. So, early detection of microcalcification clusters (MCCs) in mammograms can be helpful for cancer diagnosis and better treatment of breast cancer. In this paper a computer method has been proposed to support radiologists in detection MCCs in digital mammography. First, in order to facilitate and improve the detection step, mammogram images have been enhanced with wavelet transformation and morphology operation. Then for segmentation of suspicious MCCs, two methods have been investigated. The considered methods are: adaptive threshold and watershed segmentation. Finally, the detected MCCs areas in different algorithms will be compared to find out which segmentation method is more appropriate for extracting MCCs in mammograms.
Breast cancer has become a symbol of tremendous concern in the modern world, as it is one of the major causes of cancer mortality worldwide. In this concern, many people are frequently screening for breast cancer in order to be identified early and avert mortality from the disease by receiving treatment. Breast Ultrasonography Images are frequently utilized by doctors to diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. However, the complex artifacts and heavily noised Breast Ultrasonography Images make detecting Breast Cancer a tough challenge. Furthermore, the ever-increasing number of patients being screened for Breast Cancer necessitates the use of automated Computer Aided Technology for high accuracy diagnosis at a cheap cost and in a short period of time. The current progress of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the fields of Medical Image Analysis and Health Care is a boon to humanity. In this study, we have proposed a compact integrated automated pipelining framework which integrates ultrasonography image preprocessing with Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) to tackle the complex artifact of Breast Ultrasonography Images complementing semantic segmentation with Modified U-Net leading to Breast Tumor classification with robust feature extraction using a transfer learning approach with pretrained VGG 16 model and densely connected neural network architecture. The proposed automated pipeline can be effectively implemented to assist medical practitioners in making more accurate and timely diagnoses of breast cancer.
Radiomics has proven to be a powerful prognostic tool for cancer detection, and has previously been applied in lung, breast, prostate, and head-and-neck cancer studies with great success. However, these radiomics-driven methods rely on pre-defined, hand-crafted radiomic feature sets that can limit their ability to characterize unique cancer traits. In this study, we introduce a novel discovery radiomics framework where we directly discover custom radiomic features from the wealth of available medical imaging data. In particular, we leverage novel StochasticNet radiomic sequencers for extracting custom radiomic features tailored for characterizing unique cancer tissue phenotype. Using StochasticNet radiomic sequencers discovered using a wealth of lung CT data, we perform binary classification on 42,340 lung lesions obtained from the CT scans of 93 patients in the LIDC-IDRI dataset. Preliminary results show significant improvement over previous state-of-the-art methods, indicating the potential of the proposed discovery radiomics framework for improving cancer screening and diagnosis.
Lung cancer is deadly cancer that causes millions of deaths every year around the world. Accurate lung nodule detection and segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images is the most important part of diagnosing lung cancer in the early stage. Most of the existing systems are semi-automated and need to manually select the lung and nodules regions to perform the segmentation task. To address these challenges, we proposed a fully automated end-to-end lung nodule detection and segmentation system based on a deep learning approach. In this paper, we used Optimized Faster R-CNN; a state-of-the-art detection model to detect the lung nodule regions in the CT scans. Furthermore, we proposed an attention-aware weight excitation U-Net, called AWEU-Net, for lung nodule segmentation and boundaries detection. To achieve more accurate nodule segmentation, in AWEU-Net, we proposed position attention-aware weight excitation (PAWE), and channel attention-aware weight excitation (CAWE) blocks to highlight the best aligned spatial and channel features in the input feature maps. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed model yields a Dice score of 89.79% and 90.35%, and an intersection over union (IoU) of 82.34% and 83.21% on the publicly LUNA16 and LIDC-IDRI datasets, respectively.
Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases in the world. Detecting such tumors at an early stage can be a tedious task. Existing deep learning architecture for lung nodule identification used complex architecture with large number of parameters. This study developed a cascaded architecture which can accurately segment and classify the benign or malignant lung nodules on computed tomography (CT) images. The main contribution of this study is to introduce a segmentation network where the first stage trained on a public data set can help to recognize the images which included a nodule from any data set by means of transfer learning. And the segmentation of a nodule improves the second stage to classify the nodules into benign and malignant. The proposed architecture outperformed the conventional methods with an area under curve value of 95.67\%. The experimental results showed that the classification accuracy of 97.96\% of our proposed architecture outperformed other simple and complex architectures in classifying lung nodules for lung cancer detection.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and a good prognosis depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately, screening programs for the early diagnosis of lung cancer are uncommon. This is in-part due to the at-risk groups being located in rural areas far from medical facilities. Reaching these populations would require a scaled approach that combines mobility, low cost, speed, accuracy, and privacy. We can resolve these issues by combining the chest X-ray imaging mode with a federated deep-learning approach, provided that the federated model is trained on homogenous data to ensure that no single data source can adversely bias the model at any point in time. In this study we show that an image pre-processing pipeline that homogenizes and debiases chest X-ray images can improve both internal classification and external generalization, paving the way for a low-cost and accessible deep learning-based clinical system for lung cancer screening. An evolutionary pruning mechanism is used to train a nodule detection deep learning model on the most informative images from a publicly available lung nodule X-ray dataset. Histogram equalization is used to remove systematic differences in image brightness and contrast. Model training is performed using all combinations of lung field segmentation, close cropping, and rib suppression operators. We show that this pre-processing pipeline results in deep learning models that successfully generalize an independent lung nodule dataset using ablation studies to assess the contribution of each operator in this pipeline. In stripping chest X-ray images of known confounding variables by lung field segmentation, along with suppression of signal noise from the bone structure we can train a highly accurate deep learning lung nodule detection algorithm with outstanding generalization accuracy of 89% to nodule samples in unseen data.