Due to researchers'aim to study personalized recommendations for different business fields, the summary of recommendation methods in specific fields is of practical significance. News recommendation systems were the earliest research field regarding recommendation systems, and were also the earliest recommendation field to apply the collaborative filtering method. In addition, news is real-time and rich in content, which makes news recommendation methods more challenging than in other fields. Thus, this paper summarizes the research progress regarding news recommendation methods. From 2018 to 2020, developed news recommendation methods were mainly deep learning-based, attention-based, and knowledge graphs-based. As of 2020, there are many news recommendation methods that combine attention mechanisms and knowledge graphs. However, these methods were all developed based on basic methods (the collaborative filtering method, the content-based recommendation method, and a mixed recommendation method combining the two). In order to allow researchers to have a detailed understanding of the development process of news recommendation methods, the news recommendation methods surveyed in this paper, which cover nearly 10 years, are divided into three categories according to the abovementioned basic methods. Firstly, the paper introduces the basic ideas of each category of methods and then summarizes the recommendation methods that are combined with other methods based on each category of methods and according to the time sequence of research results. Finally, this paper also summarizes the challenges confronting news recommendation systems.
We present a collection recommender system that can automatically create and recommend collections of items at a user level. Unlike regular recommender systems, which output top-N relevant items, a collection recommender system outputs collections of items such that the items in the collections are relevant to a user, and the items within a collection follow a specific theme. Our system builds on top of the user-item representations learnt by item recommender systems. We employ dimensionality reduction and clustering techniques along with intuitive heuristics to create collections with their ratings and titles. We test these ideas in a real-world setting of music recommendation, within a popular music streaming service. We find that there is a 2.3x increase in recommendation-driven consumption when recommending collections over items. Further, it results in effective utilization of real estate and leads to recommending a more and diverse set of items. To our knowledge, these are first of its kind experiments at such a large scale.
Job recommendation has traditionally been treated as a filter-based match or as a recommendation based on the features of jobs and candidates as discrete entities. In this paper, we introduce a methodology where we leverage the progression of job selection by candidates using machine learning. Additionally, our recommendation is composed of several other sub-recommendations that contribute to at least one of a) making recommendations serendipitous for the end user b) overcoming cold-start for both candidates and jobs. One of the unique selling propositions of our methodology is the way we have used skills as embedded features and derived latent competencies from them, thereby attempting to expand the skills of candidates and jobs to achieve more coverage in the skill domain. We have deployed our model in a real-world job recommender system and have achieved the best click-through rate through a blended approach of machine-learned recommendations and other sub-recommendations. For recommending jobs through machine learning that forms a significant part of our recommendation, we achieve the best results through Bi-LSTM with attention.
Textual explanations have proved to help improve user satisfaction on machine-made recommendations. However, current mainstream solutions loosely connect the learning of explanation with the learning of recommendation: for example, they are often separately modeled as rating prediction and content generation tasks. In this work, we propose to strengthen their connection by enforcing the idea of sentiment alignment between a recommendation and its corresponding explanation. At training time, the two learning tasks are joined by a latent sentiment vector, which is encoded by the recommendation module and used to make word choices for explanation generation. At both training and inference time, the explanation module is required to generate explanation text that matches sentiment predicted by the recommendation module. Extensive experiments demonstrate our solution outperforms a rich set of baselines in both recommendation and explanation tasks, especially on the improved quality of its generated explanations. More importantly, our user studies confirm our generated explanations help users better recognize the differences between recommended items and understand why an item is recommended.
Machine learning models learn what we teach them to learn. Machine learning is at the heart of recommender systems. If a machine learning model is trained on biased data, the resulting recommender system may reflect the biases in its recommendations. Biases arise at different stages in a recommender system, from existing societal biases in the data such as the professional gender gap, to biases introduced by the data collection or modeling processes. These biases impact the performance of various components of recommender systems, from offline training, to evaluation and online serving of recommendations in production systems. Specific techniques can help reduce bias at each stage of a recommender system. Reducing bias in our recommender systems is crucial to successfully recommending dream jobs to hundreds of millions members worldwide, while being true to LinkedIn's vision: "To create economic opportunity for every member of the global workforce".
With the increased use of AI methods to provide recommendations in the health, specifically in the food dietary recommendation space, there is also an increased need for explainability of those recommendations. Such explanations would benefit users of recommendation systems by empowering them with justifications for following the system's suggestions. We present the Food Explanation Ontology (FEO) that provides a formalism for modeling explanations to users for food-related recommendations. FEO models food recommendations, using concepts from the explanation domain to create responses to user questions about food recommendations they receive from AI systems such as personalized knowledge base question answering systems. FEO uses a modular, extensible structure that lends itself to a variety of explanations while still preserving important semantic details to accurately represent explanations of food recommendations. In order to evaluate this system, we used a set of competency questions derived from explanation types present in literature that are relevant to food recommendations. Our motivation with the use of FEO is to empower users to make decisions about their health, fully equipped with an understanding of the AI recommender systems as they relate to user questions, by providing reasoning behind their recommendations in the form of explanations.
Diverse recommendation techniques have been already proposed and encapsulated into several e-business applications, aiming to perform a more accurate evaluation of the existing information and accordingly augment the assistance provided to the users involved. This paper reports on the development and integration of a recommendation module in an agent-based transportation transactions management system. The module is built according to a novel hybrid recommendation technique, which combines the advantages of collaborative filtering and knowledge-based approaches. The proposed technique and supporting module assist customers in considering in detail alternative transportation transactions that satisfy their requests, as well as in evaluating completed transactions. The related services are invoked through a software agent that constructs the appropriate knowledge rules and performs a synthesis of the recommendation policy.
Diversity is an important factor in providing high-quality personalized news recommendations. However, most existing news recommendation methods only aim to optimize recommendation accuracy while ignoring diversity. Reranking is a widely used post-processing technique to promote the diversity of top recommendation results. However, the recommendation model is not perfect and errors may be propagated and amplified in a cascaded recommendation algorithm. In addition, the recommendation model itself is not diversity-aware, making it difficult to achieve a good tradeoff between recommendation accuracy and diversity. In this paper, we propose a news recommendation approach named LeaDivRec, which is a fully learnable model that can generate diversity-aware news recommendations in an end-to-end manner. Different from existing news recommendation methods that are usually based on point- or pair-wise ranking, in LeaDivRec we propose a more effective list-wise news recommendation model. More specifically, we propose a permutation Transformer to consider the relatedness between candidate news and meanwhile can learn different representations for similar candidate news to help improve recommendation diversity. We also propose an effective list-wise training method to learn accurate ranking models. In addition, we propose a diversity-aware regularization method to further encourage the model to make controllable diversity-aware recommendations. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets validate the effectiveness of our approach in balancing recommendation accuracy and diversity.
Recommendation systems are emerging as an important business application with significant economic impact. Currently popular systems include Amazon's book recommendations, Netflix's movie recommendations, and Pandora's music recommendations. In this paper we address the problem of estimating probabilities associated with recommendation system data using non-parametric kernel smoothing. In our estimation we interpret missing items as randomly censored observations and obtain efficient computation schemes using combinatorial properties of generating functions. We demonstrate our approach with several case studies involving real world movie recommendation data. The results are comparable with state-of-the-art techniques while also providing probabilistic preference estimates outside the scope of traditional recommender systems.
Existing research on fairness-aware recommendation has mainly focused on the quantification of fairness and the development of fair recommendation models, neither of which studies a more substantial problem--identifying the underlying reason of model disparity in recommendation. This information is critical for recommender system designers to understand the intrinsic recommendation mechanism and provides insights on how to improve model fairness to decision makers. Fortunately, with the rapid development of Explainable AI, we can use model explainability to gain insights into model (un)fairness. In this paper, we study the problem of explainable fairness, which helps to gain insights about why a system is fair or unfair, and guides the design of fair recommender systems with a more informed and unified methodology. Particularly, we focus on a common setting with feature-aware recommendation and exposure unfairness, but the proposed explainable fairness framework is general and can be applied to other recommendation settings and fairness definitions. We propose a Counterfactual Explainable Fairness framework, called CEF, which generates explanations about model fairness that can improve the fairness without significantly hurting the performance.The CEF framework formulates an optimization problem to learn the "minimal" change of the input features that changes the recommendation results to a certain level of fairness. Based on the counterfactual recommendation result of each feature, we calculate an explainability score in terms of the fairness-utility trade-off to rank all the feature-based explanations, and select the top ones as fairness explanations.