Existing Building Damage Detection (BDD) methods always require labour-intensive pixel-level annotations of buildings and their conditions, hence largely limiting their applications. In this paper, we investigate a challenging yet practical scenario of BDD, Unsupervised Building Damage Detection (U-BDD), where only unlabelled pre- and post-disaster satellite image pairs are provided. As a pilot study, we have first proposed an advanced U-BDD baseline that leverages pre-trained vision-language foundation models (i.e., Grounding DINO, SAM and CLIP) to address the U-BDD task. However, the apparent domain gap between satellite and generic images causes low confidence in the foundation models used to identify buildings and their damages. In response, we further present a novel self-supervised framework, U-BDD++, which improves upon the U-BDD baseline by addressing domain-specific issues associated with satellite imagery. Furthermore, the new Building Proposal Generation (BPG) module and the CLIP-enabled noisy Building Proposal Selection (CLIP-BPS) module in U-BDD++ ensure high-quality self-training. Extensive experiments on the widely used building damage assessment benchmark demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for unsupervised building damage detection. The presented annotation-free and foundation model-based paradigm ensures an efficient learning phase. This study opens a new direction for real-world BDD and sets a strong baseline for future research.
Code completion models have made significant progress in recent years, yet current popular evaluation datasets, such as HumanEval and MBPP, predominantly focus on code completion tasks within a single file. This over-simplified setting falls short of representing the real-world software development scenario where repositories span multiple files with numerous cross-file dependencies, and accessing and understanding cross-file context is often required to complete the code correctly. To fill in this gap, we propose CrossCodeEval, a diverse and multilingual code completion benchmark that necessitates an in-depth cross-file contextual understanding to complete the code accurately. CrossCodeEval is built on a diverse set of real-world, open-sourced, permissively-licensed repositories in four popular programming languages: Python, Java, TypeScript, and C#. To create examples that strictly require cross-file context for accurate completion, we propose a straightforward yet efficient static-analysis-based approach to pinpoint the use of cross-file context within the current file. Extensive experiments on state-of-the-art code language models like CodeGen and StarCoder demonstrate that CrossCodeEval is extremely challenging when the relevant cross-file context is absent, and we see clear improvements when adding these context into the prompt. However, despite such improvements, the pinnacle of performance remains notably unattained even with the highest-performing model, indicating that CrossCodeEval is also capable of assessing model's capability in leveraging extensive context to make better code completion. Finally, we benchmarked various methods in retrieving cross-file context, and show that CrossCodeEval can also be used to measure the capability of code retrievers.
Significant strides have been made in closed world 3D object detection, testing systems in environments with known classes. However, the challenge arises in open world scenarios where new object classes appear. Existing efforts sequentially learn novel classes from streams of labeled data at a significant annotation cost, impeding efficient deployment to the wild. To seek effective solutions, we investigate a more practical yet challenging research task: Open World Active Learning for 3D Object Detection (OWAL-3D), aiming at selecting a small number of 3D boxes to annotate while maximizing detection performance on both known and unknown classes. The core difficulty centers on striking a balance between mining more unknown instances and minimizing the labeling expenses of point clouds. Empirically, our study finds the harmonious and inverse relationship between box quantities and their confidences can help alleviate the dilemma, avoiding the repeated selection of common known instances and focusing on uncertain objects that are potentially unknown. We unify both relational constraints into a simple and effective AL strategy namely OpenCRB, which guides to acquisition of informative point clouds with the least amount of boxes to label. Furthermore, we develop a comprehensive codebase for easy reproducing and future research, supporting 15 baseline methods (i.e., active learning, out-of-distribution detection and open world detection), 2 types of modern 3D detectors (i.e., one-stage SECOND and two-stage PV-RCNN) and 3 benchmark 3D datasets (i.e., KITTI, nuScenes and Waymo). Extensive experiments evidence that the proposed Open-CRB demonstrates superiority and flexibility in recognizing both novel and shared categories with very limited labeling costs, compared to state-of-the-art baselines.
Analyzing model performance in various unseen environments is a critical research problem in the machine learning community. To study this problem, it is important to construct a testbed with out-of-distribution test sets that have broad coverage of environmental discrepancies. However, existing testbeds typically either have a small number of domains or are synthesized by image corruptions, hindering algorithm design that demonstrates real-world effectiveness. In this paper, we introduce CIFAR-10-Warehouse, consisting of 180 datasets collected by prompting image search engines and diffusion models in various ways. Generally sized between 300 and 8,000 images, the datasets contain natural images, cartoons, certain colors, or objects that do not naturally appear. With CIFAR-10-W, we aim to enhance the evaluation and deepen the understanding of two generalization tasks: domain generalization and model accuracy prediction in various out-of-distribution environments. We conduct extensive benchmarking and comparison experiments and show that CIFAR-10-W offers new and interesting insights inherent to these tasks. We also discuss other fields that would benefit from CIFAR-10-W.
Monocular cameras are extensively employed in indoor robotics, but their performance is limited in visual odometry, depth estimation, and related applications due to the absence of scale information.Depth estimation refers to the process of estimating a dense depth map from the corresponding input image, existing researchers mostly address this issue through deep learning-based approaches, yet their inference speed is slow, leading to poor real-time capabilities. To tackle this challenge, we propose an explicit method for rapid monocular depth recovery specifically designed for corridor environments, leveraging the principles of nonlinear optimization. We adopt the virtual camera assumption to make full use of the prior geometric features of the scene. The depth estimation problem is transformed into an optimization problem by minimizing the geometric residual. Furthermore, a novel depth plane construction technique is introduced to categorize spatial points based on their possible depths, facilitating swift depth estimation in enclosed structural scenarios, such as corridors. We also propose a new corridor dataset, named Corr\_EH\_z, which contains images as captured by the UGV camera of a variety of corridors. An exhaustive set of experiments in different corridors reveal the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
In the era of Large Language Models (LLMs), tremendous strides have been made in the field of multimodal understanding. However, existing advanced algorithms are limited to effectively utilizing the immense representation capabilities and rich world knowledge inherent to these large pre-trained models, and the beneficial connections among tasks within the context of text-rich scenarios have not been sufficiently explored. In this work, we introduce UniDoc, a novel multimodal model equipped with text detection and recognition capabilities, which are deficient in existing approaches. Moreover, UniDoc capitalizes on the beneficial interactions among tasks to enhance the performance of each individual task. To implement UniDoc, we perform unified multimodal instruct tuning on the contributed large-scale instruction following datasets. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results show that UniDoc sets state-of-the-art scores across multiple challenging benchmarks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large multimodal model capable of simultaneous text detection, recognition, spotting, and understanding.
This report examines Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the financial sector, outlining its potential to revolutionise the industry and identify its challenges. It underscores the criticality of a well-rounded understanding of AI, its capabilities, and its implications to effectively leverage its potential while mitigating associated risks. The potential of AI potential extends from augmenting existing operations to paving the way for novel applications in the finance sector. The application of AI in the financial sector is transforming the industry. Its use spans areas from customer service enhancements, fraud detection, and risk management to credit assessments and high-frequency trading. However, along with these benefits, AI also presents several challenges. These include issues related to transparency, interpretability, fairness, accountability, and trustworthiness. The use of AI in the financial sector further raises critical questions about data privacy and security. A further issue identified in this report is the systemic risk that AI can introduce to the financial sector. Being prone to errors, AI can exacerbate existing systemic risks, potentially leading to financial crises. Regulation is crucial to harnessing the benefits of AI while mitigating its potential risks. Despite the global recognition of this need, there remains a lack of clear guidelines or legislation for AI use in finance. This report discusses key principles that could guide the formation of effective AI regulation in the financial sector, including the need for a risk-based approach, the inclusion of ethical considerations, and the importance of maintaining a balance between innovation and consumer protection. The report provides recommendations for academia, the finance industry, and regulators.
Large language models trained on code have shown great potential to increase productivity of software developers. Several execution-based benchmarks have been proposed to evaluate functional correctness of model-generated code on simple programming problems. Nevertheless, it is expensive to perform the same evaluation on complex real-world projects considering the execution cost. On the contrary, static analysis tools such as linters, which can detect errors without running the program, haven't been well explored for evaluating code generation models. In this work, we propose a static evaluation framework to quantify static errors in Python code completions, by leveraging Abstract Syntax Trees. Compared with execution-based evaluation, our method is not only more efficient, but also applicable to code in the wild. For experiments, we collect code context from open source repos to generate one million function bodies using public models. Our static analysis reveals that Undefined Name and Unused Variable are the most common errors among others made by language models. Through extensive studies, we also show the impact of sampling temperature, model size, and context on static errors in code completions.