Travel time estimation from GPS trips is of great importance to order duration, ridesharing, taxi dispatching, etc. However, the dense trajectory is not always available due to the limitation of data privacy and acquisition, while the origin destination (OD) type of data, such as NYC taxi data, NYC bike data, and Capital Bikeshare data, is more accessible. To address this issue, this paper starts to estimate the OD trips travel time combined with the road network. Subsequently, a Multitask Weakly Supervised Learning Framework for Travel Time Estimation (MWSL TTE) has been proposed to infer transition probability between roads segments, and the travel time on road segments and intersection simultaneously. Technically, given an OD pair, the transition probability intends to recover the most possible route. And then, the output of travel time is equal to the summation of all segments' and intersections' travel time in this route. A novel route recovery function has been proposed to iteratively maximize the current route's co occurrence probability, and minimize the discrepancy between routes' probability distribution and the inverse distribution of routes' estimation loss. Moreover, the expected log likelihood function based on a weakly supervised framework has been deployed in optimizing the travel time from road segments and intersections concurrently. We conduct experiments on a wide range of real world taxi datasets in Xi'an and Chengdu and demonstrate our method's effectiveness on route recovery and travel time estimation.
In this paper, we propose a mesh-free method to solve full stokes equation which models the glacier movement with nonlinear rheology. Our approach is inspired by the Deep-Ritz method proposed in . We first formulate the solution of non-Newtonian ice flow model into the minimizer of a variational integral with boundary constraints. The solution is then approximated by a deep neural network whose loss function is the variational integral plus soft constraint from the mixed boundary conditions. Instead of introducing mesh grids or basis functions to evaluate the loss function, our method only requires uniform samplers of the domain and boundaries. To address instability in real-world scaling, we re-normalize the input of the network at the first layer and balance the regularizing factors for each individual boundary. Finally, we illustrate the performance of our method by several numerical experiments, including a 2D model with analytical solution, Arolla glacier model with real scaling and a 3D model with periodic boundary conditions. Numerical results show that our proposed method is efficient in solving the non-Newtonian mechanics arising from glacier modeling with nonlinear rheology.
Estimating the travel time of a path is an essential topic for intelligent transportation systems. It serves as the foundation for real-world applications, such as traffic monitoring, route planning, and taxi dispatching. However, building a model for such a data-driven task requires a large amount of users' travel information, which directly relates to their privacy and thus is less likely to be shared. The non-Independent and Identically Distributed (non-IID) trajectory data across data owners also make a predictive model extremely challenging to be personalized if we directly apply federated learning. Finally, previous work on travel time estimation does not consider the real-time traffic state of roads, which we argue can significantly influence the prediction. To address the above challenges, we introduce GOF-TTE for the mobile user group, Generative Online Federated Learning Framework for Travel Time Estimation, which I) utilizes the federated learning approach, allowing private data to be kept on client devices while training, and designs the global model as an online generative model shared by all clients to infer the real-time road traffic state. II) apart from sharing a base model at the server, adapts a fine-tuned personalized model for every client to study their personal driving habits, making up for the residual error made by localized global model prediction. % III) designs the global model as an online generative model shared by all clients to infer the real-time road traffic state. We also employ a simple privacy attack to our framework and implement the differential privacy mechanism to further guarantee privacy safety. Finally, we conduct experiments on two real-world public taxi datasets of DiDi Chengdu and Xi'an. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework.
Due to the rapid development of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, many online web apps (e.g., Google Map and Uber) estimate the travel time of trajectory data collected by mobile devices. However, in reality, complex factors, such as network communication and energy constraints, make multiple trajectories collected at a low sampling rate. In this case, this paper aims to resolve the problem of travel time estimation (TTE) and route recovery in sparse scenarios, which often leads to the uncertain label of travel time and route between continuously sampled GPS points. We formulate this problem as an inexact supervision problem in which the training data has coarsely grained labels and jointly solve the tasks of TTE and route recovery. And we argue that both two tasks are complementary to each other in the model-learning procedure and hold such a relation: more precise travel time can lead to better inference for routes, in turn, resulting in a more accurate time estimation). Based on this assumption, we propose an EM algorithm to alternatively estimate the travel time of inferred route through weak supervision in E step and retrieve the route based on estimated travel time in M step for sparse trajectories. We conducted experiments on three real-world trajectory datasets and demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Recently, forecasting the crowd flows has become an important research topic, and plentiful technologies have achieved good performances. As we all know, the flow at a citywide level is in a mixed state with several basic patterns (e.g., commuting, working, and commercial) caused by the city area functional distributions (e.g., developed commercial areas, educational areas and parks). However, existing technologies have been criticized for their lack of considering the differences in the flow patterns among regions since they want to build only one comprehensive model to learn the mixed flow tensors. Recognizing this limitation, we present a new perspective on flow prediction and propose an explainable framework named ST-ExpertNet, which can adopt every spatial-temporal model and train a set of functional experts devoted to specific flow patterns. Technically, we train a bunch of experts based on the Mixture of Experts (MoE), which guides each expert to specialize in different kinds of flow patterns in sample spaces by using the gating network. We define several criteria, including comprehensiveness, sparsity, and preciseness, to construct the experts for better interpretability and performances. We conduct experiments on a wide range of real-world taxi and bike datasets in Beijing and NYC. The visualizations of the expert's intermediate results demonstrate that our ST-ExpertNet successfully disentangles the city's mixed flow tensors along with the city layout, e.g., the urban ring road structure. Different network architectures, such as ST-ResNet, ConvLSTM, and CNN, have been adopted into our ST-ExpertNet framework for experiments and the results demonstrates the superiority of our framework in both interpretability and performances.
We introduce the so called DeepParticle method to learn and generate invariant measures of stochastic dynamical systems with physical parameters based on data computed from an interacting particle method (IPM). We utilize the expressiveness of deep neural networks (DNNs) to represent the transform of samples from a given input (source) distribution to an arbitrary target distribution, neither assuming distribution functions in closed form nor a finite state space for the samples. In training, we update the network weights to minimize a discrete Wasserstein distance between the input and target samples. To reduce computational cost, we propose an iterative divide-and-conquer (a mini-batch interior point) algorithm, to find the optimal transition matrix in the Wasserstein distance. We present numerical results to demonstrate the performance of our method for accelerating IPM computation of invariant measures of stochastic dynamical systems arising in computing reaction-diffusion front speeds through chaotic flows. The physical parameter is a large Pecl\'et number reflecting the advection dominated regime of our interest.
This paper introduces a new open-source speech corpus named "speechocean762" designed for pronunciation assessment use, consisting of 5000 English utterances from 250 non-native speakers, where half of the speakers are children. Five experts annotated each of the utterances at sentence-level, word-level and phoneme-level. A baseline system is released in open source to illustrate the phoneme-level pronunciation assessment workflow on this corpus. This corpus is allowed to be used freely for commercial and non-commercial purposes. It is available for free download from OpenSLR, and the corresponding baseline system is published in the Kaldi speech recognition toolkit.
Exciton diffusion plays a vital role in the function of many organic semiconducting opto-electronic devices, where an accurate description requires precise control of heterojunctions. This poses a challenging problem because the parameterization of heterojunctions in high-dimensional random space is far beyond the capability of classical simulation tools. Here, we develop a novel method based on deep neural network to extract a function for exciton diffusion length on surface roughness with high accuracy and unprecedented efficiency, yielding an abundance of information over the entire parameter space. Our method provides a new strategy to analyze the impact of interfacial ordering on exciton diffusion and is expected to assist experimental design with tailored opto-electronic functionalities.
We propose a data-driven approach to solve multiscale elliptic PDEs with random coefficients based on the intrinsic low dimension structure of the underlying elliptic differential operators. Our method consists of offline and online stages. At the offline stage, a low dimension space and its basis are extracted from the data to achieve significant dimension reduction in the solution space. At the online stage, the extracted basis will be used to solve a new multiscale elliptic PDE efficiently. The existence of low dimension structure is established by showing the high separability of the underlying Green's functions. Different online construction methods are proposed depending on the problem setup. We provide error analysis based on the sampling error and the truncation threshold in building the data-driven basis. Finally, we present numerical examples to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.