Recently, large pretrained language models have achieved compelling performance on commonsense benchmarks. Nevertheless, it is unclear what commonsense knowledge the models learn and whether they solely exploit spurious patterns. Feature attributions are popular explainability techniques that identify important input concepts for model outputs. However, commonsense knowledge tends to be implicit and rarely explicitly presented in inputs. These methods cannot infer models' implicit reasoning over mentioned concepts. We present CommonsenseVIS, a visual explanatory system that utilizes external commonsense knowledge bases to contextualize model behavior for commonsense question-answering. Specifically, we extract relevant commonsense knowledge in inputs as references to align model behavior with human knowledge. Our system features multi-level visualization and interactive model probing and editing for different concepts and their underlying relations. Through a user study, we show that CommonsenseVIS helps NLP experts conduct a systematic and scalable visual analysis of models' relational reasoning over concepts in different situations.
Commercial ML APIs offered by providers such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft have dramatically simplified ML adoption in many applications. Numerous companies and academics pay to use ML APIs for tasks such as object detection, OCR and sentiment analysis. Different ML APIs tackling the same task can have very heterogeneous performance. Moreover, the ML models underlying the APIs also evolve over time. As ML APIs rapidly become a valuable marketplace and a widespread way to consume machine learning, it is critical to systematically study and compare different APIs with each other and to characterize how APIs change over time. However, this topic is currently underexplored due to the lack of data. In this paper, we present HAPI (History of APIs), a longitudinal dataset of 1,761,417 instances of commercial ML API applications (involving APIs from Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft and other providers) across diverse tasks including image tagging, speech recognition and text mining from 2020 to 2022. Each instance consists of a query input for an API (e.g., an image or text) along with the API's output prediction/annotation and confidence scores. HAPI is the first large-scale dataset of ML API usages and is a unique resource for studying ML-as-a-service (MLaaS). As examples of the types of analyses that HAPI enables, we show that ML APIs' performance change substantially over time--several APIs' accuracies dropped on specific benchmark datasets. Even when the API's aggregate performance stays steady, its error modes can shift across different subtypes of data between 2020 and 2022. Such changes can substantially impact the entire analytics pipelines that use some ML API as a component. We further use HAPI to study commercial APIs' performance disparities across demographic subgroups over time. HAPI can stimulate more research in the growing field of MLaaS.
Benchmark datasets play an important role in evaluating Natural Language Understanding (NLU) models. However, shortcuts -- unwanted biases in the benchmark datasets -- can damage the effectiveness of benchmark datasets in revealing models' real capabilities. Since shortcuts vary in coverage, productivity, and semantic meaning, it is challenging for NLU experts to systematically understand and avoid them when creating benchmark datasets. In this paper, we develop a visual analytics system, ShortcutLens, to help NLU experts explore shortcuts in NLU benchmark datasets. The system allows users to conduct multi-level exploration of shortcuts. Specifically, Statistics View helps users grasp the statistics such as coverage and productivity of shortcuts in the benchmark dataset. Template View employs hierarchical and interpretable templates to summarize different types of shortcuts. Instance View allows users to check the corresponding instances covered by the shortcuts. We conduct case studies and expert interviews to evaluate the effectiveness and usability of the system. The results demonstrate that ShortcutLens supports users in gaining a better understanding of benchmark dataset issues through shortcuts, inspiring them to create challenging and pertinent benchmark datasets.
Existing generative pre-trained language models (e.g., GPT) focus on modeling the language structure and semantics of general texts. However, those models do not consider the numerical properties of numbers and cannot perform robustly on numerical reasoning tasks (e.g., math word problems and measurement estimation). In this paper, we propose NumGPT, a generative pre-trained model that explicitly models the numerical properties of numbers in texts. Specifically, it leverages a prototype-based numeral embedding to encode the mantissa of the number and an individual embedding to encode the exponent of the number. A numeral-aware loss function is designed to integrate numerals into the pre-training objective of NumGPT. We conduct extensive experiments on four different datasets to evaluate the numeracy ability of NumGPT. The experiment results show that NumGPT outperforms baseline models (e.g., GPT and GPT with DICE) on a range of numerical reasoning tasks such as measurement estimation, number comparison, math word problems, and magnitude classification. Ablation studies are also conducted to evaluate the impact of pre-training and model hyperparameters on the performance.
Multimodal sentiment analysis aims to recognize people's attitudes from multiple communication channels such as verbal content (i.e., text), voice, and facial expressions. It has become a vibrant and important research topic in natural language processing. Much research focuses on modeling the complex intra- and inter-modal interactions between different communication channels. However, current multimodal models with strong performance are often deep-learning-based techniques and work like black boxes. It is not clear how models utilize multimodal information for sentiment predictions. Despite recent advances in techniques for enhancing the explainability of machine learning models, they often target unimodal scenarios (e.g., images, sentences), and little research has been done on explaining multimodal models. In this paper, we present an interactive visual analytics system, M2Lens, to visualize and explain multimodal models for sentiment analysis. M2Lens provides explanations on intra- and inter-modal interactions at the global, subset, and local levels. Specifically, it summarizes the influence of three typical interaction types (i.e., dominance, complement, and conflict) on the model predictions. Moreover, M2Lens identifies frequent and influential multimodal features and supports the multi-faceted exploration of model behaviors from language, acoustic, and visual modalities. Through two case studies and expert interviews, we demonstrate our system can help users gain deep insights into the multimodal models for sentiment analysis.
Graph convolutional networks have achieved great success on graph-structured data. Many graph convolutional networks can be regarded as low-pass filters for graph signals. In this paper, we propose a new model, BiGCN, which represents a graph neural network as a bi-directional low-pass filter. Specifically, we not only consider the original graph structure information but also the latent correlation between features, thus BiGCN can filter the signals along with both the original graph and a latent feature-connection graph. Our model outperforms previous graph neural networks in the tasks of node classification and link prediction on most of the benchmark datasets, especially when we add noise to the node features.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) aim to extend deep learning techniques to graph data and have achieved significant progress in graph analysis tasks (e.g., node classification) in recent years. However, similar to other deep neural networks like Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), GNNs behave like a black box with their details hidden from model developers and users. It is therefore difficult to diagnose possible errors of GNNs. Despite many visual analytics studies being done on CNNs and RNNs, little research has addressed the challenges for GNNs. This paper fills the research gap with an interactive visual analysis tool, GNNVis, to assist model developers and users in understanding and analyzing GNNs. Specifically, Parallel Sets View and Projection View enable users to quickly identify and validate error patterns in the set of wrong predictions; Graph View and Feature Matrix View offer a detailed analysis of individual nodes to assist users in forming hypotheses about the error patterns. Since GNNs jointly model the graph structure and the node features, we reveal the relative influences of the two types of information by comparing the predictions of three models: GNN, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), and GNN Without Using Features (GNNWUF). Two case studies and interviews with domain experts demonstrate the effectiveness of GNNVis in facilitating the understanding of GNN models and their errors.